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AP Biology Chapter 52

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Heidi Erwin

on 19 April 2014

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Transcript of AP Biology Chapter 52

AP Biology Chapter 52
What is ecology and how do environemental factors affect the diversity of biomes and it's inhabitants?
Concept 52.2
Interactions between organisms and the environment limit the distribution of species.
Aquatic biomes are diverse and dynamic systems that cover most of Earth
The structure and distribution of terrestrial biomes are controlled by climate and disturbance
Chapter 52: An Introduction to Ecology and the Biosphere

Ecology integrates all areas of biological research and informs environmental decision making
Tropical Forests
Northern Coniferous Forest/Taiga
Temperate Grassland
Temperate Broadleaf Forest
plot of temperature and precipitation in a particular region
Ecotone- area of intergradation
200-400 cm annual rainfall
cold nights, hot days
<30 cm annual rainfall
30-50 cm annual rainfall
30-50 cm annual rain
dry summers
frequent droughts and fires
30-70 cm annual rainfall, frequent snow
70-->200+ cm annual rainfall
arctic areas -30°-->10°C
Dispersal and Distribution
Behavior and Habitat Selection
Abiotic Factors
Global Climate Patterns
Biotic Factors
Long Term Climate Change
Natural Range Expansions
Sunlight and Wind
Species Transplants
Abiotic Factors




Bodies of Water
1. Temperature, precipitation, sunlight, and wind are the major components of ______.

a) biotic factors
b) biomes
c) dispersal
d) climate
e) ecosystems

2. Bodies of water tend to moderate climate because ________.

a) Water has a high heat of vaporization.
b) The hydrogen bonding in water gives it a high specific heat.
c) The hydrogen bonding in water causes it to be cohesive.
d) Water is always cooler than the nearby landmasses.
e)all of the above

Concept Quiz
Concept Quiz (cont.)
3. Why are many of the world's deserts located at latitudes of between 30°N and 30°S?

a) Earth is tilted on its axis.
b) The greatest amount of solar energy per unit area is absorbed by Earth between 30°N latitude and 30°S latitude.
c) Dry air, originating at the equator, descends toward Earth's surface between 30°N latitude and 30°S latitude.
d) Warm air rises between 30°N latitude and 30°S latitude and spreads toward the poles and the equator.
e) Earth is a rotating sphere.

4. Wet and dry seasons in tropical deciduous forests are ultimately caused by _____.

a) changes in day length
b) microclimates
c) the tilt of the Earth
d) upwelling of cold ocean water
e) proximity to bodies of water

Overview: The scope of Ecological Research
Ecology(Experimental science): Scientists manipulate environmental factors to see effects.
Linking Ecology & Evolutionary Biology
Concept Quiz (cont.)
5. The sum of all Earth's ecosystems is called the _____.
a) Stratosphere
b) Lithosphere
c) Biosphere
d) Hydrosphere
e) Troposphere

6. An ecologist might conduct research to answer which of the following questions?
a) How does the uneven heating of Earth's surface cause the movement of air and water masses?
b) How do genes specify protein construction?
c) How are different species of fish related (in an evolutionary sense) to each other?
d) How does caffeine affect the transmission of nerve impulses in humans?
e) How do tapeworms adapt to life in the human intestine?

Concept Quiz (cont.)
7. The warming of the Earth is a(n) ______ effect. People are worried that it will have a(n) _______ effect, perhaps causing the extinction of a number of species.
a) Ecological; evolutionary
b) Abiotic; dispersal
c) Evolutionary; biotic
d) Ecological; dispersal
e) Biotic; abiotic
Ecological factors leads to evolutionary changes.
Ecology & Environmental Issues
Scientists use ecoligical information to address environmental issues
Rachel Carson
, Silent Spring

Modern Ecoglogy
Types of Aquatic Biomes
Permafrost is characteristic of the _____.
b.temperate forest
c.tropical forest
d. desert
e. taiga
Below the photic zone of the ocean, _____
a)phytoplankton outnumber zooplankton
b)plants are rooted in the sandy bottom

c)food chains are detritus-based
d)primary producers capture the sun's energy, which is then passed up the energy pyramid
e) all the organisms are either floating or free-swimming

What is the importance of turnover in temperate lakes?

a)It brings oxygen-rich water to the bottom, and nutrient-rich water to the surface.
b)It helps to set up a thermocline in the lake.
c)It brings benthic organisms to the surface where they have access to more light and oxygen.
d)It occurs constantly during the summer, giving the lakes a murky appearance.
e)It changes the relative positions of the photic and aphotic zones.

deciduous trees
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