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ANKLE

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Transcript of ANKLE

High Ankle Sprain
WHAT IS IT?
Sprain of ligaments holding the tibia & fibula together ( ATiFL & syndesmosis)
HOW DOES IT HAPPEN?
Forced dorsiflexion and/or eversion
rotational force
SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS
:
unable to move ankle
pain with dorsiflexion
SPECIAL TEST: Squeeze
TREATMENT:
months RICE
immobilize
Medial Ankle Sprain
WHAT IS IT?

Twisting of the ankle causing stretching/tearing of medial ligaments AKA Deltoid ligaments
HOW DOES IT HAPPEN?

forced eversion
SIGNS & SYMPTOMS:
pain, especially walking
bruising
swelling
joint laxity
SPECIAL TEST:
Kleiger's
TREATMENT:
RICE constantly 3-6 days
apply horse shoe for swelling
ankle tape/brace
strengthen
Lateral Ankle Sprain
WHAT IS IT?

Twisting of the ankle causing stretching/tearing of lateral ligaments; most commonly ATFL
HOW DOES IT HAPPEN?

forced inversion
SIGNS & SYMPTOMS:
pain, especially walking
sharp pain
bruising
swelling
joint laxity
SPECIAL TEST:
Anterior Drawer
TREATMENT:
RICE constantly 3-6 days
apply horse shoe for swelling
ankle tape/brace
strengthen
Ankle Ligaments
Which ligaments get stretched with extreme inversion?
lateral ligaments: Anterior Tibiofibular,
Anterior Talofibular
, Calcaneal Fibular
Which ligaments get stretched with extreme eversion?
medial ligaments: deltoid ligaments
ANKLE ANATOMY
How many joints are in the ankle?
2
The “true” ankle joint is
TIBIA + TALUS
What type of joint is the ankle?
HINGE
The lateral malleolus is part of which bone?
FIBULA
The medial malleolus is part of which bone?
TIBIA
Which lower leg bone bears all the weight?
TIBIA
Which lower leg bone bears no weight?
FIBULA

ANKLE
Foot/Ankle Muscles
What four movements can the toes perform?
FLEXION, EXTENSION
ABDUCTION, ADDUCTION
What 4 movements occur at the ankle?
DORSIFLEXION, PLANTARFLEXION
INVERSION, EVERSION

Ankle Dislocation
WHAT IS IT?
Tibia and/or talus move out of place
HOW DOES IT HAPPEN?
Foot is planted and forced into internal rotation
SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS:
extreme pain and swelling
obvious deformity
TREATMENT:
RICE
relocate at DR
Tibial Stress Fracture
WHAT IS IT?

tiny crack in the bone
HOW DOES IT HAPPEN?
overuse of the lower leg
repetitive running/jumping
poor foot structure: pes cavus
SIGNS & SYMPTOMS:
intense pain in leg after activity
aching pain
point tender
+percussion test
TREATMENT:
rest AT LEAST 14 days
Ice
correct running mechanics
Medial Tibial Stress Syndrome
WHAT IS IT?

Shin splints: Pain in the anterior shin
HOW DOES IT HAPPEN?
repetitive micro trauma (running & jumping)
shoes with no support/cushion
overtraining
untreated foot conditions
weak leg muscles
SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS
:
pain along anterior shin before/during or after activity
TREATMENT:
***REST***
RICE
Ice Massage
Correct Foot Conditions
Achilles Rupture
WHAT IS IT?
Grade 3 strain (complete tear) of the Achilles tendon
*typically occurs in athletes over 30*
HOW DOES IT HAPPEN?

explosive pushing off of the foot w/ knee extended
athlete usually has Achilles tendinitis prior to rupture
SIGNS & SYMPTOMS:
feeling a sudden snap
deformity
point tender
bruising
swelling
inability to raise toes
SPECIAL TEST:
+
Thompson Test
TREATMENT:
surgery
rehabilitation-back in about 6 months
Achilles Tendonitis
WHAT IS IT?

Inflammation & irritation of the Achilles Tendon
HOW DOES IT HAPPEN?

repetitive running and jumping
SIGNS & SYMPTOMS:
aching pain in the Achilles
Stiff in the Achilles
going uphill makes pain worse
pain w/ dorsiflexion
thick feeling over achilles
crepitus
TREATMENT:
cross friction massage
calf stretching
strengthen gastrocs
Ankle Tape Job
1. Ankle in full DORSIFLEXION
2. Apply Heel & Lace Pads & Pre-Wrap
3. 2 Anchors
• Start at base of CALF
4. 1 Anchor
• Base of the 5th metatarsal
5. 3 Stirrups & 3 Horseshoes
• MEDIAL to LATERAL
• Alternate between stirrups & Horseshoes
• Cover malleoli in 1/3s
6. 1 Anchor to hold stirrups down
7. 3 Figure 8’s
• Around foot then around ankle
• Pull into foot arch
8. 4 HEEL LOCKS ( 2 each side)
• Alternate sides
9. Close off
• No open spaces
• Start at CALF

Achilles Tape Job
1. Athlete must be laying prone
2. Ankle in PLANTARFLEXION
• Athlete relaxed, no tightened muscles
3. Apply Pre-Wrap from MIDDLE of calf to BASE OF 5TH
4. 2 Anchors
• At MID-CALF
5. 1 Anchor
• Base of the 5th metatarsal
6. Make 3 “x”s
• Use 3 strips of tape for each X
7. Apply “X”s
• Attach “X” at CALF first
• Pull the “X” tight as you lay it down
8. Apply Anchors to cover ends of the “X”s
• 3 at calf
• 2 at base of 5th metatarsal
9. Close off with Flexiwrap
• No open spaces
• Start at CALF
Full transcript