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First aid and treatment

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junaid khaliq

on 5 January 2015

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Transcript of First aid and treatment

First aid and treatment
What is first aid?
Provision of immediate care to a victim with an injury ... and performed within a limited skill range
Emergency/immediate treatment
Priority of first aid is to preserve life and reduce risk of further complications
Primary survey
Danger - check the area for potential danger to yourself (another casualty will worsen problems) ...remove any hazardous objects form around the casualty
Secondary survey
Additional information
Secondary survey
Bleeding - check the area and check the patient for head to toe bleeding
P5
Saltaps
With increasingly serious injuries important to stop SALTAPS process at appropriate stage
Bleeding
Loss of blood is common in many sports
Shock
Signs and symptoms of shock
Medical referrals for specialist help
Depending on the nature of injury ... may be necessary to refer an individual to a specialist
Shock
Caused by drop in blood pressure or blood volume
Secondary survey overview
The secondary survey is only to be commenced after the primary survey has been completed
CPR
Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR)
Primary survey overview
http://www.sja.org.uk/sja/first-aid-advice/lifesaving-procedures/primary-survey.aspx
Further considerations
Special attention needs to be paid in certain situations following an injury
Common treatments
Some injuries may require treatments other then primary/secondary survey
Saltaps
SALTAPS is a sports related assessment of injury
Priced
For acute but less severe traumatic injuries ..the initial treatment should involve the PRICED procedure
Additional common treatments
Additional common treatments can be used when dealing with an injury .. these are often used to minimise movement of the injured area and limit further damage
Addiotional resources
Overview of first aid
Primary survey .. key components?
Overview of treatment
SALTAPS - components
Severity of sporting injury can vary ..from minor cuts to bruises to life threatening problems
Knowledge of first aid can potentially save a persons life ... and also help with minor problems to speed recovery and limit complications .. examples?
Proper first aid helps to minimise the effects of injury
Importance of preventing complications in sport?
First aid is just the stage during an injury
With potentially serious accidents a specific primary survey should be carried out
Primary survey ensures that a patient is breathing . therefore it needs to be completed .. hence the name
Response - check if their is any response from individual .. if not call for help immediately .. do not leave the injured person
Airway - Be aware of potential neck injuries .. Gently tip head backwards and check for any foreign objects in the persons mouth blocking their airway
Breathing - check to see if person is breathing (10 seconds) .. If not send someone for an ambulance (999)
Circulation - check for signs of circulation .. if not .. CPR is required
Secondary survey should be carried out if unconscious person is breathing .. done to check all areas of the body for damage
Both processes should be carried out quickly and in a systematic way
Head and neck - check for bruising and/or deformity.. gently feel back of neck for damage
Shoulders and chest - compare the shoulders ..feel for fractures in the collarbone and ribs
Abdomen and pelvis - feel around the abdomen for abnormalities and see if person feels any pain
Legs and arms - check legs..then arms for fractures and any other clues
Pockets - check persons pockets to prevent injury when you roll them into recovery position... be cautious of sharp objects .. consider having a witness present if you prowl pockets
Recovery - place person into recovery position .. if neck injury is suspected this should be done with assistance or other people supporting the casualty's whole body
Technique used when a person is not breathing and showing any signs of circulation
Process is carried out to keep vital organs alive until help arrives (short term fix)
The Primary Survey, or initial assessment, is designed to help the emergency responder detect immediate threats to life. Immediate life threats typically involve the patient's ABCs, and each is correct as it is found
This assessment is a complete examination of the patient from top to toe, both front and back
Be aware of jewelery to make sure it is not worsening the problem (also look for medic alerts .. i.e diabetes bracelets/necklaces)
Make a mental note/written note of any observations during the primary and secondary survey .. report these to emergency services who deal with casualty
The recovery position is a way of positioning an unconscious casualty (minimising the risk of their airway becoming comprised
Dangers that are avoided are ..
the tongue relaxing and blocking the airway
.. and
the patient vomiting and the vomit blocking the airway

An oxygen supply to brain is needed to sustain life .. done via inhaled air and the movement of blood in the body
If breathing and heart beating is not occurring then CPR is required
CPR involves breathing for the casualty and performing chest compressions
http://www.nhs.uk/Conditions/Accidents-and-first-aid/Pages/CPR.aspx
Can be a secondary reaction to many serious injuries (major blood loss)
Three classifications
Cardiogenic shock - the most common type and is caused by the heart not pumping effectively
Hypovolaemic shock - caused by loss in bodily fluids resulting in low blood volume (common in traumatic injuries .. major sports injuries
Anaphylactic shock - caused by severe allergic reaction
http://mnhealthandmedical.com/tchp_shock_series_part_2.pdf
- Increased pulse rate (can become weaker as condition worsens)
- Pale and clammy skin .. sweating as shock worsens
- Dizziness
- Feelings of weakness
- Fast..shallow breathing
- Nausea or vomiting
- Severe shock can result in deep breathing alongside confusion, anxiety and aggression
Treating shock
Treating shock
- The cause of shock must be addressed ( for example .. a fracture must be immobilised
- Lay the person down and if possible raise the legs (to keep flow of blood to the vital organs
- Keep the person warm
- Loosen any tight clothing
With all cases of shock .. emergency services should be contacted immediately .. the casualty should be monitored continuously (breathing, pulse and response
http://www.sja.org.uk/sja/first-aid-advice/shock.aspx
Causes of blood can vary from minor scratches to major lacerations and puncture wounds
You should prevent infection in the casualty and first aider with all cases of blood loss.. can be achieved by wearing disposable gloves
Main priorities ..
stop bleeding
..
prevent person from going into shock
and
reducing risk of infection
Do not remove any large .. impaled objects from the body ..
pressure can be applied to either side
of object if it is embedded within a person)
Treating bleeding
..apply direct pressure to the site of bleeding using a bandage or guaze
Absorbent, sterile dressing large enough to cover the wound should be applied firmly without restricting blood flow to the body
majority of sports injuries don't require CPR or treatment for shock ..however appropriate treatment is required for all injuries .. The
correct treatment of injuries is critical
to ensure the healing process can occur
without complications

If fractures are a possibility .. essential to minimise movement of the injury ion needs to be paid in certain situations following an injury
If infection risk is high .. it is important to minimise the risk.. often through appropriate covering of the injury
For an unconscious casualty .. you must be aware of the potential of head injuries .. and chance of concealed injuries .. can be identified through??
Important to summon qualified assistance and emergency services with any of these injuries
Essential to complete an accident form if treatment of injury is required .. process is a legal requirement for insurance purposes
When soft tissue is damaged it becomes inflamed .. the purpose of PRICED is to reduce swelling.. prevent further damage and ease pain
Protect
- the person and the injured part of the body to minimise risk of further injury
Rest
- allows healing and prevent any further damage
Ice
- stops the injured area from swelling
Compression
- acts as a support and also prevents swelling
Elevation
- reduces blood flow to the area .. reducing swelling with the aid of gravity
http://www.firstaid4sport.co.uk/PRICE-Injury-Protocol-AIG_price/
http://www.firstresponse.org.uk/first-aid-az/3-general/first-aid/108-primary-secondary-survey
Questioning is an important part of the secondary survey. You can use a mnemonic such as ‘SAMPLE’ to help you structure your questioning:

S: Symptoms
A: Allergies
M: Medication
P: Past medical/surgical history (relevant)
L: Last meal / last drink
E: Events leading up to the incident/injury
To ensure best efforts are made to carry out an accurate assessment of signs and symptoms .. and diagnose an injury ... SALTAPS is used as guideline
Used specifically to asses injured people at point of occurrence
How is this relevant to sport??
Stop
- observe the injury
Ask
- ask questions about the injury .. where it hurts, type of pain ..other questions??
Look
- look for specific signs.. i.e redness, welling, foreign objects
Touch
- palpate injured part to identify painful areas and swelling
Active movement
- ask the injured person if they can move injured part of the body without help
Passive movement
- if person can move the injured area .. gently move it through full ROM
Strength testing
- can they stand up or put pressure on injury? .. if so continue to observe them
In any sports related treatment .. those who are more experienced are the most appropriate individuals to give treatment
Aim of SALTAPS is to make accurate assessment of the type, severity and location of the injury
Can be difficult for some sports injuries .. even most experienced practitioners can find an initial on site diagnosis difficult
Methods such as:
-Taping
-Bandaging
-Tubigrips
-Splints
-Limb supports
Other common treatments:
-Cryotherapy .. local of general use of low temperature that reduces swelling..prevents bleeding and provides pain relief
-Thermothearpy .. use of heat treatment used to assist the healing process
-Anesthetic spray .. magic spray in football
-Electrotherapy - electrical impulses repair tissue
GP
Physiotherapist
Specialist consultant
Surgeon
Strength and conditioning coach
Nutritionist
Secondary survey ... key components?
Shock - signs and symptoms
CPR - procedure
Bleeding - treatment of bleeding
Priced - components
More common treatments - types .. purposes
Specialists - when to ask for help
Purpose of these treatments are to minimise the risk of injury..and also heal the injury site
Ankle sprain
Groin pull
Hamstring strain
Shin splints
Knee injury: ACL tear
Knee injury: — resulting from the repetitive movement of your kneecap against your thigh bone
Tennis elbow (epicondylitis)
How can the injuries listed above be treated?
Why?
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