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Sarah Bayoumi

on 21 July 2015

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Transcript of Cells

Characteristics of Life
Reproduction - process by which one organism makes one or more new organisms

Example: A hen lays eggs to reproduce
Characteristics of Life
Organization - all living things must be organized

Cells with only one organism are cell called unicellular organisms (ex. bacteria), and cells with more than one cell called multicellular organisms (ex. humans)
Characteristics of Life
Growth - when organisms grow, they increase in size

Example: Humans grow taller

A unicellular organism grows as it the cell increases in size, and a multicellular organism grows as the number of cells increase
Characteristics of Life
Response to Stimuli- All living things respond to changes in the environment.

Internal Stimuli - feeling of hunger is an example of internal stimulus

External Stimuli - a plant growing towards light is an example of external stimulis
Characteristics of Life
Homeostasis - an organism's ability to maintain steady internal conditions when outside normal conditions

Homeostasis ensures that cells can function.

Example: the body needs to be around 37 degrees, so the body will sweat, shiver or change the flow of blood to maintain the "normal" temperature
Characteristics of Life
Development - changes that occur to an organism during its lifetime

Example: a tadpole develops into a frog

Electron microscopes use a magnetic field to focus a beam of electrons through an object or onto an object's surface. They can magnify up to 100,000 times or more, which is up to 1,000 times greater than a light microscope. Transmission electron microscopes (TEMs) and scanning electron microscopes (SEMs) are the two main types of electron microscopes.

TEMs are usually used to study extremely small things like cell structures, and SEMs are usually used to study an object's surface.
The Cell
The cell is made of different structures that perform different functions to keep the cell living.

The Cell

Cell membrane- a flexible covering that protects the inside of a cell from the environment outside a cell; mostly made of two macromolecules: proteins and phospholipids; protects the cell from the outside environment
The Cell
Cell wall- a stiff structure outside the cell membrane that protects a cell from attack by viruses and other harmful organisms; a cell wall helps maintain the cell's shape and gives structural support
The Cell
Cells have appendages, like arms, legs, and claws are often used for movement. Flagella are long, tail-like appendages that whip back and forth and move a cell. Cells can also have cilia, short, hairlike structures that can move a cell or move molecules away from a cell. Paramecium moves around its environment, using its cilia.
The Cell
Cytoplasm- a fluid inside a cell that contains salts and other molecules and contains a cytoskeleton

Cytoskeleton- a network of threadlike proteins that are joined together which form a framework that gives a cell its shape and helps it move
Cell Types
All cells are grouped into two types, prokaryotic cells and eukaryotic cells.
Prokaryotic Cells
Prokaryotic cells are unicellular organisms called prokaryotes that are not surrounded by a membrane and lack many other cell parts.
Eukaryotic Cells
Plants, animals, fungi, and protists are eukaryotic cells. Each eukaryotic cell has organelles, which have specialized functions and are usually surrounded by membranes. About ten prokaryotic cells would fit inside one eukaryotic cell.
Cell Organelles
Organelles have specialized functions and are usually surrounded by membranes. Organelles allow cells to carry out more than one function at the same time.
The Nucleus
The nucleus, inside most eukaryotic cells directs cell activities and contains genetic information stored in DNA. The nucleus contains chromosomes (proteins) and an organelle called the nucleolus, which is usually seen as a large dark spot in the nucleus and makes ribosomes, organelles that are involved in the production of proteins. Two membranes surround the nucleus called that are called the nuclear envelope. It contains many pores, and certain molecules, like ribosomes and RNA, move into and out of the nucleus throughout the pores.
Manufacturing Molecules
A ribosome is used to make proteins in the cell's cytoplasm and is not surrounded by a membrane. They can also be attached to a endoplasmic reticulum, or ER. ER carries proteins and other materials from one part of the cell to another. ER with ribosomes on its surface is called rough ER, opposed to smooth ER which has no ribosomes. Smooth ER is important because it helps remove harmful substances from a cell.
Processing Energy
Most eukaryotic cells contain hundreds of organelles called mitochondria.

Mitochondria - Produce most of the energy the cell needs to carry out its function; surrounded by two membranes

Energy is released during chemical reactions that occur in the mitochondria. It's stored in ATP, adenosine triphosphate.

Chloroplasts - capture energy from sunlight and use it to produce food for the cell

Plant cells and some protists, like algae, contain chloroplasts too.
Processing, Transporting, and Storing Molecules
Golgi Apparatus - prepares proteins for their specific jobs or functions, then packages the proteins into vesicles

Vesicles - transport substances from one area to another area of the cell; some ate called lysosomes in animals

Lysosomes - contain substances which help break down and recycle cellular components

Some cells have vacuoles. The typical plant cell has one large vacuole, while some animal cells have many vacuoles.

Vacuoles - store food, water, and waste materials in cells
Cells and Energy
Cellular Respiration
All living things need energy to survive.

Cellular Respiration - processes of chemical reactions that convert energy in food molecules into a ATP, a usable form of energy

Cellular respiration, a complex process occurs in the cytoplasm and the mitochondria
Fermentation - an anaerobic cellular process in which organic foods are converted into simpler compounds, and ATP is produced
Types of Fermentation
When glucose is converted into ATP and lactic acid, a waste product is one type of fermentation. Muscle cells in humans and other animals can use lactic acid to obtain energy during excercise.

Alcohol fermentation is a process in which some sugars (as glucose) are converted into alcohol and carbon dioxide by the action of various yeasts, molds, or bacteria on carbohydrate materials (as dough or sugar solutions) some of which do not themselves undergo fermentation but can be hydrolyzed into fermentable substances (as in the production of alcohol and alcoholic beverages)
Lights and Pigments
Reactions in Chloroplasts
Levels of Organization
No matter the size, all organisms are made of cells.
Organ System
unit of matter
Smallest particle in a chemical element or compound that has the chemical properties of that element or compound
The smallest unit of an organism
A group of cells in an organism that have similar structure and function.
A group of tissues that perform a specific function or group of functions.
A group of organs that work together to perform a certain task
Characteristics of Life
There are 6-8 characteristics of life. In order to be classified as a living thing or organism, one must have
To maintain their internal order, energy is needed by organisms. Energy is utilized in chemical reactions.
Evolution and Adaptation
All living things evolve and adapt.

Evolution - process where living organisms change throughout time

Adaptation - process where living organisms change over a long period of time to become better suited for their environment
Universal Genetic Code
When DNA and RNA molecules carry genetic information in living cells
Microscopes enable people to see details of living things that they could not see with the naked eye.

Light microscopes use light and lenses to enlarge an image of an object. A simple light microscope only has one lens, but compound microscopes use more than one lens to magnify an object. They can magnify up to 1,500 times their original size and are used to view living or nonliving objects.

Exploring Life
Body Tube: Connects to the eyepiece and
that connects to the objective lenses.
Eyepiece lens: 10X or 15X power. Used to
look at the object magnified.
Arm: Used to support the tube
Base: Used for support by holding the
microscope together
Stage Clips: Stage clips hold the slide in place.
Nose piece: Holds the objective lenses, used to
rotate to a different power lens.
Objective lenses: There are 3-4 lenses. They are used
for magnification each at a different power.
Diaphragm: Rotating disk used to vary the intensity and size the light.
Light Source: It helps make the object you are looking
It brightens up the view.
Coarse Adjustment knob: Used to focus the image on low or medium power.
Fine Adjustment Knob: Used for focusing the finer details
Photosynthesis is the process by which green plants and some other organisms use sunlight to synthesize nutrients from carbon dioxide and water and give off oxygen.
Photosynthesis in plants generally involves the green pigment chlorophyll and generates oxygen as a by-product.
Chemical reactions of photosynthesis is powered by the light energy that is absorbed by chlorophyll. These chemical reactions occur in chloroplasts, a plastid in green plant cells which contains chlorophyll and in which photosynthesis takes place.


One cell

Grows as the cell increases in size
Multiple cells

Grows as number of cells increase
Part of the characteristics of life
Plant Cells
Animal cells are eukaryotic cells, or cells with a membrane-bound nucleus.
Plant Cell
Plant cells are prokaryotic cells, or cells with a membrane-bound nucleus.
Some examples of specialized plant cell types include:

Parenchyma Cells - although not highly specialized, these cells synthesize and store organic products in the plant.

Collenchyma Cells - help to support plants while not restraining growth due to their lack of secondary walls and the absence of a hardening agent in their primary walls.

Sclerenchyma Cells - provide a support function in plants, but unlike collenchyma cells, they have a hardening agent and are much more rigid.
Larger and have more organelles
Injury of some cells affects the organism because the cell
can be replaced
Examples: plants, animals,
dogs, cats, birds, fish, people etc..
Both contain DNA and ribsomes
Both contain cytoplasm
and a cell membrance
Smaller and have less organelles
Injury of the cell can cause death to the organism
Examples are Amoebae, bacteria and Paramecium
A living thing that may be unicellular or multicellular
A group of one kind of organism living in an area
Several populations of organisms living together
All living and non living thins together in a similar environment like the desert.
A major ecological community type
Cell Differentiation - Process when cells become different types of cells.
Plant Cell
Animal Cell




Rough ER

Smooth ER

Golgi Apparatus


Cell membrance





cell wall



Science book
Science Book
Parts of the Cell
(Cell Organelles)
Animal Cell
Nucleus, Nucleous, Ribosome, Mitochondria, Rough ER Smooth ER, Golgi Apparatus, Vesicle, Cell membrane
Cytoskeloton, Cytoplasm, lysosomes.
Parts of the Cell
(Cell Organelles)
Plant Cell
Nucleus, Nucleous, Ribosome, Mitochondria, Rough ER Smooth ER, Golgi Apparatus, Vesicle, Cell membrance
Cytoskeloton, Cytoplasm, chloropast, central vacuole, cell wall, vacuoles, chlorophyll.
Full transcript