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Education During 1930-1935
Transcript of Education During 1930-1935
"The 1930s: Education: Overview." American Decades. 2001. Encyclopedia.com. 7 Oct. 2013 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.
Ruth Shaw's School Life
On her blog, 88 year old Ruth Shaw relates her tale of what school was like in the 1930's.
Education during the 1930s suffered due to the effects of the Great Depression. Only 16 out of 116 Alabama schools paid their teachers fully in 1932. The rest of the teachers in Alabama got paid with vouchers instead of money, and almost 81% of children in Alabama had no school during the years 1932 and 1933. Some schools changed their hours and had shorter school days, and other schools got rid of many programs such as home economics, music, and PE in order to save money.
Many schools were segregated during this time, for in the South, segregation was law. African Americans were believed to be incapable of learning at the same level as the whites. Therefore, there were schools for the blacks, and there were schools for the whites so that the whites "weren't held back". African American schools were also not as nice as the others because they had little funding and were unrepresented on the school board.
African Americans vs. Whites
Lack of Money = Lack of Schooling
Teachers used rulers to whip disobedient children. Ruth says, "The disobedient child held his/her hand out with palm up to be smacked with a ruler. For major misbehavior, a razor strop or a hickory switch was used on the child's bottom."
The School Room
Facing the teacher's desk, there was a row of student desks all attached. There were also many blackboards around the room.
How They Dressed
Ruth says, "In Grammar School in those days, girls always wore dresses to school with knee stockings and oxford-type shoes or high top shoes. I remember a few of the girls wore high-top stockings. These were dark, thick, stockings, often black, that came above the knee and were held secure by elastic circles."
People socialized with their own race and class.
Children walked to school.
They were graded A,B,C,D, or F.
Schools had 'field days'.
They called it Grammar School instead of Elementary School.
The Dewey Decimal system was a big part of the school system.
More Racial Barriers
There was also other forms of unfair treatment involving the education of the two races.
Black schools received about $15 from school boards.
White schools received about $80 from school boards.
All whites were allowed to enroll in a school.
Only 20% of blacks were allowed to enroll in school.
Lack of Money
Segregation of Blacks & Whites
The first 5 grades were divided into 10. (Lower and Upper 3rd grade)
Many schools were just one room classrooms and contained all of the grades.
The teachers were often only a few years older than the students.
Using the Dewey Decimal system was very important and useful.
Many new pieces of literature including, 'Of Mice and Men', and the 'Dick and Jane' series were published ad used in schools.
In the 1930s, higher education became highly encouraged. During the Great Depression, these aspirations of achieving a higher education created hope in people's lives. Admission into universities were non-merit based. The College Education Examination Board also developed college entrance exams. At this higher level of education, segregation was also an issue.