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Stages of Life

This presentation provides an overview of the Stages of Life

David Keegan

on 27 September 2010

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Transcript of Stages of Life

The Stages of Life Childhood 0 -11 Adolecence 12-19 Young Adulthood 19-30 Middle Adulthood 40-60 Late Adulthood 70+ This period corresponds to the infant and school years. This period is significant for social, biological, psychological and cognitive development. Children learn to relate to peers and other people outside the family unit. Initially parents, and later other significant individuals, can influence the child's development such as teachers.
Early adult transition - 17-22
Entering the adult world - 22-28
Age thirty transition - 28-33
Settling down - 33-40 Midlife transition - 40-45
Entering middle adulthood - 45-50
Age fifty transition - 50-55
Culmination of middle adulthood - 55-60 Late adult transition - 60-65
Retirement - 65-75
Prepare for death - 75 + Adolescence is generally divided into 3 stages
early - 12-14 - early puberty, social and physical changes
Middle - 15-16 - fight for independence
Late - 17-19 - becoming an adult Frequency of verbal interactions with infant Research has shown that children from families of professionals have a greater vocabulary and better language development that those from welfare dependent families Physical development — development includes the change in the individual of his or her growth, physical independence, mobility and self-care
Sexual development — development includes the change in the individual of his or her body; identity, and expression. Social development — development includes the change in the individual of his or her belief systems, values and attitudes, social skills and behaviours and social roles Emotional and psychological development — development includes the change in the individual of his or her ability to understand the feelings of others, relationships, self-esteem, self awareness and identity and self confidence Cognitive development — development includes the change in the individual of his or her verbal and non-verbal communication, literacy, language and ability to reason Physical
•dramatic increase in height and weight in first year
•develops from very limited physical independence to moving independently
•changes from being completely dependent in eating, dressing, toileting to being completely independent in all areas.
•develops from having no expressive verbal language (uses non verbal methods) to reading, understanding basic abstract concepts, vocabulary which increases everyday
•learns by observation, imitation, practice, visually, experientially
•begins to develop problem-solving skills. Emotional and psychological
•moves from being focussed only on self to needs of others
•starts to move away from family and into broader social world
•issues of attachment and separation to significant carer
•issues of long term separation impact on emotional development
•development of trust and security
•emergence of sense of self: self-awareness. Social
•primarily influenced by family
•process of socialisation: learn rules of groups and society so can function within them
•role of play for developing social skills and knowledge
•starts to develop moral judgement rather than applying moral rules. Sexual
•capacity for sexual responses begins from babyhood
•babies and preschool aged children will explore their bodies
•interest in some areas of sexuality begin in preschool
•develops sense of gender and is socialised into gender specific roles Physical
•release of sexual hormones resulting in physical sexual development
•girls: menstruating begins starts around 11–12 years
•development of secondary sex characteristics such as growth of facial, body and pubic hair
•completely independent in all areas of self-care. Cognitive
•capable of introspection, problem solving and logical, abstract and hypothetical thinking
•often boys’ learning is enhanced by physical activity
•often girls’ learning is enhanced by discussion
•learning from peers is important.
•early physical development can result in social advantages such as leadership
•importance of peers and their acceptance: use of tobacco, drugs/alcohol
•challenges values of family and moral development influenced by peers and outside world.
•sexual identity and sexual preference become more important: confusion often a feature especially if sexual orientation is towards bisexuality or homosexuality
•values and attitudes about sexuality develop
•knowledge of sexuality increases: still carry a lot of misinformation
•sexual activity may commence
•safe sex and pregnancy and sexual health become important issues
•masturbation practised by both males and females
•sexual coercion. Emotional and psychological
•body image becomes a significant issue for both boys and girls
•physical attractiveness is important
•weight and eating disorders
•self awareness: conforming to peer group often more important than to family
•a positive self-esteem is linked to competence in relationships, and social adjustment and social well being
•emotions related to stress, anxiety, anger
•self concept stabilises. Physical
•continued changes in weight and body shape
•increased risks of some health problems such as some cancers
•increased risk of accidents for young adult men resulting in physical impairment
•pregnancy and childbirth.
•continued learning in all areas particularly social and global issues
•learning associated with career choice
•language and expressiveness mature
•life experiences impact on problem solving skills. Emotional and psychological
•developing a personal identity: may be linked to work eg professional identity as nurse, banker
•achieving personal autonomy
•emotional stability increases
•self-esteem and personal confidence increases. Social
•establish career
•find intimacy in a variety of ways
•become part of social groups
•select a mate
•adjust to long term partnerships
•become a parent
•adjust values to accommodate new life experiences and interpretations
•more socially skilled
•readjust relationship with family. Sexual
•developing sexual identity
•exploring sexual expression
•sexual orientation clearer
•may have a number of sexual partners. Physical
•women go through menopause
•increased experience of health issues including cancers, heart disease, arthritis
•physical ageing process more obvious including skin tone, mobility, vision and hearing changes.
(Note: for many Aboriginal people this would be considered the age at which people are in older adulthood due to the reduced average lifespan compared with non Indigenous people) Cognitive
•continue to learn through life experiences
•move towards learning for enjoyment rather than career. Emotional and psychological
•adjusting to changing roles in community: parent of young children to parent of adults to grandparents (sense of loss/freedom), changes in social status (move from work to retirement)
•shifts in intimate relationships: death, relationship breakdown. Social
•values and attitudes continue to be shaped by larger social world but are often quite set
•impacted on by society that discriminates against older people and which values youth: influences work opportunities and sense of worth
•affirmation of worth of family
•caring for ageing parents
•caring for grandchildren
•caring for the community: giving back in return for what has been gained. Sexual
•increased capacity for sexual expression eg due to menopause (no risk of pregnancy), not caring for children (increased privacy)
•sexual dysfunction due to health issues. Physical
•decreased mobility
•increased experience of health issues including those associated with memory loss
•deterioration in vision and hearing
•increasing dependence on others for care. Cognitive
•continues to learn through life experiences
•may have reduced interest in broader social world
•difficulty in adapting to new technology.
Emotional and psychological
•adjusting to ageing and own mortality
•loss of peer group, partners
•sense of long life history and connectedness with extended family
•social limitations, isolation
•preparing for end of life. Social
•impact of ageist culture which does not value elders vs. impact of culture which does
•values and attitudes different from younger community
•increased sense of vulnerability
•adjusting to balance between independence and dependence
•reduced self-determination. Sexual
•sexual dysfunction
•limited opportunities for sexual expression because not supported eg living in nursing home and no privacy, mobility and physical capacity may impact, lack of partner. Developmental
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