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Pressure Groups (GOVP1T2)

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by

Max Taylor

on 22 December 2013

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Transcript of Pressure Groups (GOVP1T2)

Sectional Pressure Groups
Sectional Pressure Groups is the term applied to pressure groups that represent the interests of a particular section of society, like the National Farmer's Union (NFU)


The English Collective of Prostitutes
is a sectional pressure group has around 217 members and aims to legalise prostitution and stop anyone being forced into the sex industry. Their methods include petitions, issuing leaflets and giving public speeches
Cause Pressure Groups
Cause Pressure Groups are instead concerned with a particular social or ethical issue, like the
Campaign for Nuclear Disarmament (CND)




The Royal Society for the Protection of Birds (RSPB)

is a cause group with over 1 million members and aims to protect birds and wildlife. Their future aim is to combat agricultural change.
Classification of
Pressure Groups

What is a
Pressure Group?

A Pressure Group is an organisation which tries to influence government policy in some way.

They are different from political parties in two ways:
- they do not seek office
- they are usually only concerned with one issue
Specialist Insiders
A specialist insider group is an insider group consulted on their narrow expertise
Peripheral Insiders
Peripheral Insiders are insider groups whose area of expertise is so narrow that government would only rarely consult its members.
DID YOU KNOW?
Cause groups are less successful than Sectional Groups because the government can:
- question their representativeness
- argue the cause has little overall importance
- allege that the cause is 'too extreme'
Criticisms of
sectional group-cause group typology
Critics of section group-cause group typology argue that some groups do not fit neatly into categories.

For example,
NASUWT
clearly campaigns for
sectional
interests of its members but would also claim to raise awareness and promote reform in the field of education (a
cause
interest)

Instead, these critics suggest it would be easier to categorise according to achievement

Core Insiders
A core insider is an insider pressure group that works closely with the government and is consulted regularly across a range of policy areas.
Insider Groups


Insider groups have regular contact with decision makers and generally work 'behind the scenes' rather than engaging in high-profile publicity stunts that could embarrass the government and threaten the group's privileged status.

Generally, insider groups have mainstream goals.
Outsider Groups



Outsider groups do not have regular contact with decision-makers and are therefore often forced into performing publicity stunts as a means of moving their cause or interest up in the political current agenda.

Generally, outsider groups campaign on issues that provoke considerable controversy.


Grant's Typology
Idealogical Outsiders
Idealogical Outsiders are outsider groups that look to avoid establishing close relationships with the government because they clash.

Alternatively, in the case of
Amnesty International
, they are idealogical in avoiding the government as it would tarnish their impartiality if they were to do otherwise.
Outsiders by Necessity
These are outsider groups that are forced to be so due to lack of prospect of consultation

In the case of
Fathers4Justice
, their methods were too extreme for the government to associate with them.
Potential Insiders
Potential Insiders are outsiders that might achieve their aim but are currently lacking in support or experience for the government to want to associate with them.
Drifting Pressure Groups
Charter 88
was clearly outside the government loop until it gained influence after the 1997 General Election

The National Farmer's Union (NFU)
became more outsider as the EU got more control over British agricultural policy
Criticisms of
Grant's Typology
1) Groups do not fit neatly into these categories

2) It would be easier to classify according to likelihood of achievement

3) Groups can drift from outsiders to insiders and vice versa
Recap of Examples:
National Farmer's Union (NFU):
sectional pressure group that drifted from insider to outsider after EU policy became more powerful

English Collective of Prostitutes:
sectional pressure group

Campaign for Nuclear Disarmament:
cause group

Royal Society for the Protection of Birds:
core insider cause group

National Association of Schoolmasters and Union of Women Teachers (NASUWT):
works as both as a sectional and cause group

Amnesty International:
Idealogical Outsiders

Fathers4Justice:
Outsiders by Necessity

Charter88:
cause group that drifted from outsider to insider
Full transcript