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Social 7 - Unit 1 Diverse Peoples
Transcript of Social 7 - Unit 1 Diverse Peoples
- I can state how the structures of Aboriginal societies affect decision making in each society Why these groups? These were some of the first groups to have contact with the European colonists and were very affected by them.
Why do you think this was? Mi'kmaq, Haudenosaunee and Anishinabe This picture of a Mi'kmaq family shows a traditional wigwam - a structure made from poles and sheets of bark. Decision-Making - Each district has local leaders, Saqamaws, who are chosen/advised by a Council of Elders
- There are district council meetings
- Each district sends a representative to The Grand Council
- The Grand Council meets once a year
- Advises where to hunt, fish and set up camps
- Manage relations with other First Nations Background Information - Mi'kmaq comes from the word nikmaq, which means "my brothers"
- It is pronounced mee-gmaw
- Alternate names: Micmac, Mi'maq Seasonal Movement - Lived close to the coast in the summer and into the forest in the winter
- Made the best use of resources of the land
- Fit their way of life to suit the land Way of Life - Gain respect in the tribe through accomplishments
- Have respect for elders and for the different districts - Were religious - prayed and believed in the Creator - Hunting is very important
- Used foot, canoe and toboggan to travel and transport goods - Men and women had different roles; however, all roles were viewed as important because it contributed to the whole group
- Sharing and support were extremely important Anishinabe Society Wild rice is an important food in the traditional diet of the Anishinabe. Wild rice grows naturally at the edges of the lakes on the Canadian Shield. Decision-Making - Society was made up of clans who each had different responsibilities
- The clans worked together and provided balance
- Joined the clan of your father
- People in your clan were considered your brothers and sisters Background Information - Anishinabe, also referred to as Ojibway, which means "to pucker" and may refer to the puckered seams on Anishinabe moccasins.
- The French heard it as Chippewa: a version the Anishinabe prefer not to use
- It is pronounced a-nish-na-beh
- Alternate names: Ojibway, Ojibwa Midewin Society - Men AND women who had special spiritual/healing gifts
- People respected them
- Had eight levels of secret training
- Believed in having a good life, healed people, interpreted dreams/visions and passed on sacred teachings/songs Way of Life - Gather together to meet/make friends, exchange goods and food and do sports/ceremonies
- Would make alliances through arranged marriages - Respect creation because they thought that the Creator was present in anything
- Believe in respect for all living things - Used different camps between Summer and Winter
- Men hunt and women would garden and cook
- Do not accumulate wealth because they take only what they need Read how the Mi'kmaq learn from their Elders today
pg. 30 Read a story about the Mi'kmaq Society
pg. 10 Read a story about the Anishinabe Society
pg. 15 Read how the Anishinabe pass down their oral history
pg. 32 - Ogimauh is the leader of the Anishinabe
- Have councils which discuss and make decisions
- Had special buildings for councils; men and women were at them and they sat in a circle
- Decisions were made by being voted on Haudenosaunee Society The Haudenosaunee built long houses which were permanent dwellings framed in wood and covered with elm bark. Background Information - Haudenosaunee means "people of the longhouse"
- It is pronounced how-den-o-show-nee
- They do not like to be referred to as the Iroquois which represents the French version of a name learned from Ouendat, an enemy nation of the Haudenosaunee and an ally of France during the fur trade
- Alternate names: Iroquois, Six Nations Confederacy, Iroquois Confederacy Clan Mothers - Family tree is traced through mothers
- Unites the nation as relatives
- Were very powerful
- They could remove Hoyaneh from power if they were failing Way of Life - Several families would live together
- Lived in year round settlements in longhouses
- Were an agricultural community
- Would only move when the land would not produce food - The Peacemaker brought the Great Law of Peace and was deeply respected by the people and taught the people to respect all things Read how the Haudenosaunee relate Lacrosse to their spirtuality
pg. 34 Read a story about the Haudenosaunee Society
pg. 20 Decision-Making - Created a confederacy of six nations; the Cayuga, Mohaqk, Oneida, Onondaga, Seneca and Tuscarora
- The nations spoke different languages, lived in different areas and had their own clans/councils - The Great White Pine represents the Great Law of Peace
- The branches represent the nations
- The roots represent peace and strength
- The weapon buried at the base of the tree represents there being no hostility among the nations - Chiefs, called Hoyaneh, were chosen and advised by clan mothers
- Chiefs from each nation would meet at Grand Council to make confederacy decisions guided by the Great Law of Peace
- They made decisions like whether to go to war, enter into trade, sign treaties, etc. Alliances First Nations negotiated alliances for many reasons: to secure trade agreements, for defense or to make peace - The Mi'kmaq and four other First Nations formed the Wabanaki Confederacy. The alliance promoted trade among its members and opposed the Haudenosaunee.
- The Council of the Three Fires allied the Anishinabe with Odawa and the Pottawatomi. The oral history of the Anishinabe indicated that these three First Nations were once a single people.
- The Great Law of Peace united five, and eventually six, nations as the Haudenosaunee Confederacy, also known as the Iroquois Confederacy. This alliance established peace among these nations, and made them a powerful military force in North America Examples perspective: values and ideas shared by people with a common language, culture and history indigenous peoples: First peoples, the original peoples of a place consensus: agreement by everyone wampum belt: shell beads woven into belts or strings used to record treaties and other agreements among different nations protocols: formal rules alliance: an agreement among a group of nations to act together to support each other's interests Leader
- Mi'kmaq (Saqamaw)
- Anishinabe (Ogimauh)
- Haudenosaunee (Hoyaneh) powwow: a gathering of First Nations people to celebrate their cultures disruption: breaking an established way of doing things
human rights: rights every person has as a human being
savages: a word used by Europeans to describe First Nations peoples, but not themselves colony: a region claimed and governed by a country from another part of the world settlement: a place where people live permanently, such as a village imperialism: a policy (decision) on the part of a ruler or government of one territory to dominate other territories sponsor: a person or organization that contributes to a project or activity by paying for it European Explorers Chapter 2 Finding a Route to Asia Key Ideas - I can state the social and economic factors of European imperialism
- I can state what ways European imperialism impacts the social and economic structures of Aboriginal societies
- I can state who the key figures in the French exploration and settlement of North America was
- I can state who the key figures in the British exploration and settlement of North America was Why Choose To Explore? In the 1300s, overland trade routes between Europe and Asia became disrupted because the Mongol Empire who had previously supported and protected these routes were starting to decline in power. The routes were now vulnerable to attack and more dangerous to travel.
What do you predict happened to the price of these high demand goods? The Portuguese Christopher Columbus Christopher Columbus, an Italian navigator, thought he could sail west to find the east. The price of these high demand goods began to increase as the supply decreased. People in Europe saw this as an opportunity because if they were able to secure trade of these goods they would make a fortune. These groups were located on or near the east coast of Canada which is the initial exploration area for the Europeans. They also had positive interactions with the Europeans. Travel By Sea There were many risks associated with travel by sea: ships were slow and difficult to steer, easy to get lost, bad weather could be fatal and at that time the people thought the world was flat.
During the 1400s, Europeans began to design ships that were faster and easier to steer. They also started to use navigational instruments developed by the ancient Greeks, the Arab and Chinese sailors. The compass tells you your direction of travel The astrolabe estimates your location using the sun or the stars The Portuguese were the first to put the new ships and instruments to use. They knew that an eastern sea route to Asia did not lie through the Mediterranean Sea because it was well known and well mapped. In 1488, a Portuguese explorer, Bartolomeau Dias, rounded Africa's southern tip causing them to begin arriving in India. The Portuguese did not want other Europeans to follow them so they did their best to control the eastern sea route to Asia. In 1492, King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella of Spain agreed to put up the money for his expedition. They made a deal with Columbus: if he succeeded in finding Asia, Spain would take ninety percent of the profits he made and Columbus would keep the rest. Why was this idea risky at the time? Columbus never found Asia and instead landed in the Caribbean. Spanish explorers traveled into Central America and South America where they found the gold of the Aztecs and Incan empires. They took the gold and enslaved the people to work in the mines making Spain the most powerful country at the time. Giovanni Caboto In 1497, an English expedition led by Italian sailor and merchant Giovanni Caboto landed in Newfoundland and claimed it for Britain. Caboto returned to Europe with reports of seas full of fish causing many Europeans to fish off the east coast of what became Canada. The ships arrived in summer and went home in winter only coming to shore to dry their catch and replenish their supplies of fresh water. How do you think the First Nations may have reacted to this taking place? Spanish explorers traveled into Central America and South America where they found the gold of the Aztecs and Incan empires. They took the gold and enslaved the people to work in the mines making Spain the most powerful country at the time. Spain controlled the route to the Caribbean causing Britain, France and the Netherlands who were interested in western exploration to consider more northern routes in the unknown waters of the Atlantic Ocean. Mi'kmaq The Mi'kmaq viewed trading as a way to establish good relations with other peoples while the Europeans viewed trading as an opportunity to gain profitable goods. Spanish explorers traveled into Central America and South America where they found the gold of the Aztecs and Incan empires. They took the gold and enslaved the people to work in the mines making Spain the most powerful country at the time. First Nations Peoples The Mi'kmaq traded old furs, where only the underfur is exposed, with the Europeans for durable goods, such as metal, knives, axes, kettles and needles. Europeans used the underfur to make felt. In 1713, Newfoundland became a British colony and as more British settlers began to arrive it resulted in conflict. In the early 1800s, the British settlers tried to establish friendly relations; however, all attempts began or ended violently. The extinction of the Beothuk likely was due to conflict, loss of their food supply and European diseases. Beothuk Why do you think it resulted in conflict? It is believed that the Beothuk people opposed the French and British who began to take over their land and in turn, their way of life. Contact With French Explorers Giovanni da Verrazano In 1524, King Henri II of France sponsored an expedition led by Italian navigator Giovanni da Verranzano to explore the coast of North America to determine if the land Columbus claimed for Spain connected to the land Caboto had claimed for England. Jacques Cartier In 1534, the king sponsored the next French expedition to North America led by French explorer Jacques Cartier to find a passage to Asia through North America and any precious things that could be found. Due to Cartier returning with "riches" that were merely iron pyrite and quartz crystals the saying "false as diamonds from Canada" was born. He established that it was. During his second voyage, ice forced Cartier to spend a winter at Stadacona in which the Stadacona people helped his crew when they were sick with scurvy. The following spring, Cartier seized five people from Stadacona and took them to France so they could tell the king about the wonders of the land in the west. Unfortunately all of them died because they did not have immunity to European diseases. Samuel de Champlain In 1603, Champlain retraced Cartier's voyages and explored the St. Lawrence River visiting Tadoussac, an Innu trading centre. In 1604, he returned to Canada as part of an expedition to establish the first French colony in North America; Port Royal in Acadia.
In 1608, Champlain again traveled the St. Lawrence and established a settlement at Quebec, where Stradacona had once stood. Historians had many predictions as to what happened to Stradacona such as conflict with another First Nation or a European disease devastating the people. From the French settlement in Quebec, Champlain traveled deep into the interior of North America. He was known as the "Father of New France" because he established the first permanent European settlement in Canada and kept it going. Rene-Robert Cavelier de La Salle La Salle was the first French explorer to go down the Mississippi all the way down to the Gulf of Mexico. He claimed the huge area of land between the Great Lakes and the Gulf of Mexico for France. Pierre Gaultier de la Verendrye Pierre was born in New France. In 1731, he decided to become an explorer. He had taken command of French military forts in the Great Lakes region and while there heard of a "great western sea" from the Anishinabe. He traveled west of the Great Lakes seeking a route to Asia and building forts to establish French control of the expanding fur trade. In 1699, he led an expedition into the Great Lakes region claiming he could speak Iroquois; however, it was clear once entering the Haudenosaunee land that he couldn't really speak their language. After exploring the Mississippi, La Salle hoped to conquer Mexico and in an effort to promote his plan he mapped the mouth of the Mississippi west of its actual location. Some of his crew rebelled and shot La Salle in Texas in 1685. British Explorers Martin Frobisher Samuel Hearne Matonabbee, a respected leader of the Dene Suline, traveled with British explorer Samuel Hearne for two years as Hearne sought a passage to Asia west of Hudson Bay. Almost all Europeans who explored the interior of Canada depended on First Nations guides who equipped them with transportation, supplies and shared their knowledge of the land. It is rare that we know the names of explorers guides. Henry Hudson British explorer Martin Frobisher left for the Arctic in 1576 with ships containing trade goods for Asia. Frobisher returned to Britain, cargo intact, with a piece of iron pyrite claiming it was gold. Britain sent Frobisher back to the Arctic where he mined a thousand tonnes of iron pyrite never finding any gold. In 1610, Henry Hudson went on another British mission to find a northwest passage between Europe and Asia. His ship got trapped in the ice in the Hudson Bay in 1611. His crew spent the winter battling scurvy and starvation. In the spring, Hudson wanted to explore further but his crew rebelled and abandoned him. From the French settlement in Quebec, Champlain traveled deep into the interior of North America. He was known as the "Father of New France" because he established the first permanent European settlement in Canada and kept it going. Alexander Mackenzie In 1789, Mackenzie traveled down the Mackenzie River hoping it would veer west and take him to the Pacific Ocean; however it flows to the Arctic Ocean. Four years later, Mackenzie followed the Peace River into the interior of British Columbia and continued west to the Pacific. mercantilism: a regulated economic system that made a country rich from its colonies monopoly: the complete control of a resource by a single company charter: a set of rules and privileges granted to a company by a king or queen coexistence: two or more peoples of diverse cultures living together peacefully Colonies in North America France and Britain Establish Colonies and imperialism go together. Imperialism is a policy, an official objective of a country, to dominate other regions of the world. A colony is a region of the world dominated in this way by another country. Establishing a Colony 1 2 3 4 The country sends colonists, or settlers, to live in the region as a way to establish control over it. Colonies supplied European countries with raw resources, which European countries then made into manufactured goods. European countries sold the manufactured goods around the world and back to their colonies for profit. 5 European countries made the economic rules that their colonies followed. They set the price of manufactured goods high. These rules established an economic system known as mercantilism designed to make European countries rich. Europe's rulers and merchants set up monopolies to lay claim of land and resources in North America and to establish colonies. The Crown stated the rules and rights of this arrangement in the charter, so monopolies were often called "charter colonies." British French British colonists wanted land for farms; thus, generally saw First Nations peoples as obstacles - people who had the land they wanted. The British pushed First Nations peoples aside as it established colonies. French colonists wanted resources, such as furs; thus, generally saw First Nations as partners - people who would help them tap resources. The French took steps to convert First Nations peoples to its religion, Catholicism. Why these colonies? These colonies were the first established by the French and British in Canada and coincide with the location of the First Nations groups we studied in Chapter 1. New France, Thirteen Colonies, Rupert's Land New France Religion Government Economy The colonists in New France were almost all French and Catholic. They hoped to convert First Nations peoples to the Catholic faith. The Catholic Church provided moral direction and also founded hospitals, orphanages and schools. France at first established monopolies in the fur trade hoping that New France would do extremely well. The fur trade did flourish but the colony did not. The colony had few settlers and continued to rely on supplies from France for survival. In 1663, France stopped using merchant monopolies to build the colony. The French crown took direct control of New France and governed it like a province of France encouraging more colonists to go to New France. The fur trade was the primary economic activity of New France. To succeed in the fur trade, New France formed partnerships with the Ouendat, the Anishinabe and the Innu, among other First Nations. Thirteen Colonies Religion Government Economy The colonists in the Thirteen Colonies were mostly from Protestant countries such as Britain, Germany, Sweden and Holland. They did not place a high priority on converting First Nations to their religion. Each colony had a separate government. Britain controlled these governments by directly appointing their governors, or by creating the chartered companies or group of landholders that then chose governors. Elected assemblies also played a role in more governments of the Thirteen colonies. They used the land intensely to produce agricultural products for Britain, for Britain's colonies in the Caribbean, and for themselves, including wheat, cattle, corn, tobacco and rice. They did not form partnerships with the First Nations because they viewed them as obstacles to their economic prosperity and pushed them off the land. Rupert's Land Religion Government Economy The colonists were protestant; however, religion did not play a large role in the territory. Rupert's Land was the monopoly fur trade territory of the Hudson's Bay Company, which was granted to the company in 1670. It had a governor who was the chief officer of the company. The Hudson's Bay Company counted on traders coming directly to its forts at Hudson Bay. They company supplied its forts from Britain and it also traded with First Nations people for food. A Closer Look at New France A Governor, who represented the king, controlled the military, looked after the defense of the colony and dealt with the "external relations," such as trade with First Nations groups. An Intendent works to keep the colony in good order, to make it less dependent on France for meeting its basic needs and finding new ways to exploit the colony for the benefit of France. The Bishop of Quebec represented the Catholic Church. Catholic people consulted the clergy before making important decisions and their reputation depended on their standing in their church. Key Ideas - I can state how European imperialism was responsible for the development of Acadia (New France) and British settlements
- I can state what roles the Royal Government and the Catholic Church play in the social structure of New France
- I can state what role the British government played in the settlement of North America Key Ideas - I can state how the First Nations, French, British and Metis peoples interact with each other as participants in the fur trade
- I can state how the fur trade contributed to the foundations of the economy in North America
- I can state how the Britain's interest in the fur trade is different from that of New France
- I can state how economic development in New France is impacted by the changing policies of the French Royal Government Economic Competition and the Fur Trade Phase 1: The Early Fur Trade 1500-1603 *Cod fishery began the early fur trade!!
Mi'kmaq began to trade with Europeans who were fishing cod off the east coast.
British would set up non-permanent stations on shore to dry their catch (they would call these stations, "flakes")
French fishers preferred to use salt to preserve their catch, which meant they did not need to come ashore.
Read an excerpt from Cartier's journal (pg 109), then discuss the respond question as a class. Phase 2: Expansion Inland 1603-1670 *France dominated the fur trade during this phase! New France became permanently established.
The fur trade was central to the economy of New France
Quebec and Montreal became the shipping centers for a fur trade network running up the St. Lawrence to the Great Lakes, and bound for France.
*The French, Ouendat, Mi'kmaq, Innu and Kichesiprini became partners in the fur trade.
Ouendat became middlemen in the fur trade.
Discuss: What is a MIDDLEMAN? (read the bottom of p 112)
*The French-Haudenosaunee War begins.
Opinions differ on why this war began:
Reason 1: War began because of France and the fur trade.
Reason 2: War began because France became involved in a conflict between its fur trading allies and the Haudenosaunee.
During the war, Haudenosaunee gained support from the Dutch and British. They challenged the French domination of the fur trade.
*Catholic Missionaries establish missions among First Nations.
Tried to convert First Nations to Christianity
ex: Anishinabe converted to solidify their military and trading alliance with the french.
Some First Nations would follow a blend of of Christian and traditional practices when among their own people.
*Coureurs de bois emerged.
The loss of Ouendat as middlemen disrupted fur trade in New France.
Opened opportunities for independent traders (coureurs de bois) to trade directly with First Nations.
*Intense trapping and hunting began to reduce the population of beaver and game animals.
As food became scarce, people began moving west.
Read "A Glimpse of the Future" on pg 113-114, then respond to the questions. The Sovereign Council In 1633, the king of France established the Sovereign Council to rule New France in accordance with his decisions. It includes: Social Structure In New France the most important people were born into the ruling class, or nobility. Wealth, even without nobility, commanded respect and prestige. Most people had neither nobility nor wealth, which were the farmers who most often did not have full ownership of their land. Read about Frontenac who became the governor of New France on pg. 89-90. Soldiers Under Frontenac, the governor, many soldiers came to New France to defend the colony against the Haudenosaunee and against the British. Many men had chosen a military career only because they needed some way to make a living. Read about the life of a colonist in New France on pg. 92-93 and 95. Habitants and Seigneurs Habitants were farmers who lived on seigneuries, which were large plots of land owned by seigneurs who received the land as grants from the king of France. To keep their land grants, seigneurs had to recruit settlers - habitants - to farm it. They also had to build a house for themselves, a flourmill and a church for the habitants. In exchange for the right to establish a farm, habitants had to clear the land, plant crops, build a house, pay the seigneur's miller to grind their grain into flour and few days of labor each year. Some habitants gave up farming altogether to make their living in the fur trade becoming coureurs de bois working independently to trade with the First Nations, often illegally. Read about a coureur de bois on pg. 96-97. Some became voyageurs who were men hired to paddle trade goods and furs in and out of the Great Lakes. Many merchants made their living in the fur trade by importing goods from France and traded these goods with the Innu, the Ouendat and the Anishinabe, among other First Nations, for furs. The merchants then shipped the furs to France, where they hoped to sell them for profit. Read about the influence of the Catholic Church on pg. 103. The Catholic Church and Clergy The Jesuits, a Catholic religious order, first came to New France in the early 1600s. They established missions, for forty years (1632-1672), among the Mi'kmaq, the Kichesiprini, the Haudenosaunee and the Ouwendat to convert these nations to the Catholic faith. The clergy were among a small group of educated people who could read and write. Read about the influence of the Catholic Church on pg. 103. Phase 3: Rival Networks 1670-1760 *Britian established the Hudson's Bay Company (HBC) IN 1670.
HBC competed directly with France in the fur trade. HBC still exists today as a department store chain: the Bay!
see map on pg 115
*Cree & Nakoda Middlemen emerged
These middlemen were required to trade with the French fur trade network and the First Nations in the west.
New France needed a new way to maintain trade with the First Nations of the Great Lakes and Further west.
They established trading forts in the Great Lakes region and hired men to make the canoe trips between its settlements (the men were known as voyageurs)
These men became an essential link in the French fur trade!!
*Francophone Metis have their origins in this phase of the fur trade.
French strategy: develop contact and partnerships with First Nations cross-cultural marriages).
Children of these families were called metis or mixed.
*Scottish-Metis also have their origins in this phase of the fur trade.
HBC recruited men from Scotland's Orkney Islands because its landscape resembled the land around Hudson Bay.
Cross-cultural families began to emerge.
Read and Respond to the memoir excerpt on pgs 118-119 Phase 4: The Drive West 1760-1821 *New France became a British colony in 1763.
The French system had always focused on fur trade, but now that the British was ruling the colony, the main focus was on obtaining land.
Farming pushed the fur trade, and the people who made their living from it, off the land.
*The North West Company (NWC) was formed in 1779.
After overtaking New France, independent British merchants joined together to compete against the HBC. They were known as the NWC.
Competition between the 2 companies drove the fur trade further west and new First Nations contacts were made.
*A trade in pemmican developed.
trade routes became longer and longer between forts. Voyageurs, traders and freighters needed food that travelled well.
Pemmican became the food of choice.
*Territorial Expansions Occurred.
As the fur trade moved west, so did the people who worked in the fur trade.
Red River became the central position for the NWC.
Metis people developed a distint culture at Red River (became interpreters, guides, traders, carters, etc)
*Missionaries established contact with First Nations in the west and began converting them to Christianity
Meet the Metis in Red River pgs 123-124 & Respond Questions (Formative)
Metis Women & the Fur Trade pg 126-127 & Respond Questions (Formative)
History Happens: A Tale of Two Forts pg 128-129 Debate Phase 5: Monopoly in the West 1821 - 1870 *HBC and NWC merge.
furious competition between the 2 companies led to shootings, fights and hostage-takings.
They merged under the name"The Hudson's Bay Company"
*HBC began to lose control of its monopoly.
*Trade began to decline in the west.
Buffalo began to disappear, beaver became scarce & Europe's demand for furs began to decline.
In 1861, Britain helped negotiate the sale of Rupert's Land to Canada Aboriginal peoples: First Nations, Metis and Inuit peoples, as defined by the Canada's constitution Indian: Europeans used the word Indian to describe the First Nations peoples of North America, although these peoples were diverse and had names for themselves economic competition: controlling more wealth than other people middlemen: a person who works with two people (producer and sellers) as an intermediary Francophone Metis: people who were born from a French parent and a Metis parent Factor: the person in charge of a fort and its business for the Hudson's Bay Company and the North West Company