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jian Wu

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Transcript of muslime

Bank of Ningxia

On 2009/12/24 the first Islamic bank

Islamic banking department & Islamic Financial Advisory Committee

Employs 200 Hui nationality workers
13% of the bank's employees
12% of the bank's management level staff

Islamic Banking
Officially, no restriction on the religious beliefs of individuals in private.

Unsanctioned religious activities are deemed to be a threat to the authority of the Communist Party because of possible links with ‘separatist' or ‘terrorist' threats.

Many Uyghurs continue to receive long prison terms and are executed for separatist or terrorist activities

Government Control of Religious Activities
A Timeline of Changing Policies
The real power and decision-making authority rests with the regional branches of the Communist Party
- Usually dominated by Han Chinese
- National unity considerations always take precedence over regional autonomy.
In Reality...
National minorities divisions by regional autonomy
(Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region)
Head of autonomy must be a member of the minority
More legislative rights
One child policy does not apply to minorities
Basic Minority Policies
Ultimate and paramount power rests firmly with the Communist Party of China
China has an established legal system but its people are poorly trained for it
Issues Regarding Government and Legal Systems
Presented by
Claire, Nigel, Peter, William and Lisa
Hui Shang: helped oversee trade for more than 800 since Tang dynasty

Shanghai: focus on material success; Against Qur’an

Restaurants: Qing Zhen business chain


Tourism: Mosques, Muslim traditional products shop

Muslim Business
Government policies for minorities are very positive on paper

The political slogan building a ‘harmonious society"

Poverty alleviation in ethnic minority
Current State Of Chinese Muslims
Muslims In China
Western development policy
Han people to support
Adjusted the economic market structure
Improve the comprehensive economic power
GNP in 1997: 21b yuan
GDP in 2011: 210b yuan
Few iron farming tools
GNP in 1958: 3.3b yuan
Ethnic composition of 56 Groups (2000 census)
Han Chinese (91.5%), Other Minorities (8.5%)

China Key Facts
Tang Dynasty
Brought to China by Sa’d Ibn abhi Waqqas
Started the interaction between Muslims and Chinese

Song Dynasty
Muslim traders handled most of the import/export industry

Yuan Dynasty
Muslims further excelled
The rulers encouraged Muslim immigration

Ming Dynasty
Muslims enjoy freedom in many ways
Integrated into the Chinese culture

Hui (0.79%)
Uyghur (0.75%)
Kazakh (0.11%)
Religions In China
Daoist (Taoist)
Buddhist (8.3%)
Christian (3%)
Muslim (2%)
Qing Dynasty
Held key positions in the government and the Army. Influence by revolution

Republic of China
Better relationships
Muslim federations established

Cultural Revolution
Quran and Mosques were destroyed

1978 – Today
Liberal attitude towards the Chinese Muslims.
Enjoy modest revival

Before and after China’s reform and opening up policy
Chinese citizens have the right to freedom of religion

Religious activities must be within the scope of the constitution,
the laws and policies

All religions are treated equally

Separation of religion and the state power

Law And Policies For Religions In China

Has Banned
- Ramadan for young Muslims

Has supported
- The development of western regions
of China
- Chinese Muslims pilgrimage
to Mecca Hajj

Effects Of Recent Government Regulations
Urumchi ‘7.5’ incident
Shaoguan incident
The Relationship Between Uyghurs and Han Chinese
National People's Congress is the highest state body and the unicameral legislative house in the People's Republic of China
Re-education through labor. Have the right to arrest or detain
religious or political dissidents before a court.
Often do not allow trials or judicial hearings
1949 to the late 1950s
Tolerant and supportive

Late 1950s to 1960s
Potential obstacles to the Revolution

During the Cultural Revolution
All religions (including Islam) were banned

1985s to now
Greater accommodation to religions

How do people negotiate among competing and conflicting sets of norms and ideals?

Through Public and Private Education
What Makes A Chinese Muslim? - Education

"To learn Chinese meant one became Chinese"
Language And Education In Chinese Society

A gender gap exists between male and female Chinese Muslims
Educational Progress For Chinese Muslims Is Very Poor
10 Primary Muslim Ethnicities
History Of Islam In China
History Of Islam In China
Quiz Time
Q3. Kashgar has been established as China's ___ special economic zone.
a) 4th

b) 5th

c) 6th

d) 7th
Q4. What was the main reason for banning young Uyghurs from fasting during the Ramadan?

a) There could be a terrorist attack

b) Health issue

c) Education issue

d) All of the above
Q9. What political slogan did the Chinese government use as a reason to crack down on ethnic ‘separatism' ?

a) 'Serve the People'

b) 'To rebel is justified'

c) 'Seek truth from facts'

d) 'Building a harmonious society'

Q10. What is the percentage of Muslims in China?

a) 2%

b) 3%

c) 4%

d) 5%
MGX5640 - Cross Cultural Management Communication
Q7. What's the percentage of Muslim workers in the Bank of Ningxia?

a) 10%

b) 11%

c) 12%

d) 13%
Q8. What actions were taken by Chinese government to improve the economy of Ningxia

a) Establishment of Western development project

b) Improve economic power

c) Organise developed areas to support

d) All of above
Q1. Which statement is correct?
a) China has 55 officially recognized minority ethnic groups

b) Muslims were brought to China in Tang dynasty, and started to integrate into the Chinese culture in Yuan dynasty.

c) Both A and B are correct.

d) None of above is correct.
Q2. Which Muslim ethnic group below has the biggest population?

a) Salar



d) Hui
Q5. The gender gap between Chinese male and female Muslims in education:

a) Is growing

b) Doesn't exist

c) Is causing tensions with the government

d) Is important in Chinese Muslim society
Q6. The reason of continued poor education among certain Chinese Muslims is because
a) Education is expensive

b) Parents don't want their children to study maths

c) Parents prefer their children to help out in the family sideline business instead

d) Government serves pork in schools
Certain parents prefer to have their children help out in the family business instead
China's Ethnic Policy and Practice." Chian. N.p., n.d. Web. 02 Sept. 2013. <http://www.china.com.cn/ch-book/shaoshu/shaoshu3.htm>.
China's Religious Policy." Baidu Library. N.p., n.d. Web. 02 Sept. 2013.
Circling the wagons; Settlers in Xinjiang. (2013, May 25). The Economist, 407(8837), 46(US). Retrieved from http://go.galegroup.com.ezproxy.lib.monash.edu.au/ps/i.do?id=GALE%7CA330977797&v=2.1&u=monash&it=r&p=AONE&sw=w
Country profile. China. (2001). Economist Intelligence Unit. London: Economist Intelligence Unit
Gladney, D.C. (2004). Dislocating China – Reflections on Muslims, Minorities and Other Subaltern Subjects. Hurst & Company: London.
Gladney, Dru C. (2003), The China Quarterly, pp.451-467
Israeli, R. (2002). Islam in China – Religion, ethnicity, culture and politics. Oxford: England.
John L Esposito, L. J & Bakar, O. (2008). Asian Islam in the 21st century. New York: Oxford University Press
Jonesleaning, M. (2012) Islam in China: From Silk Road to SeparatismThe, Muslim world [0027-4909] vol:102 iss:2 pg:308 -334
July 2009 Ürümqi Riots." Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, 27 Aug. 2013. Web. 02 Sept. 2013.
Kaltman, B. (2007). Under the heel of the dragon: Islam, racism, crime, and the Uighur in China. Athens: Ohio University Press
Shaoguan Incident." Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, 30 Aug. 2013. Web. 02 Sept. 2013.
The Central Work Conference in Xinjiang." Baidu Library. Baidu, n.d. Web. 02 Sept. 2013.
The Harsh Reality of China's Muslim Divide - Features - Al Jazeera English." The Harsh Reality of China's Muslim Divide - Features - Al Jazeera English. N.p., n.d. Web. 02 Sept. 2013. <http://www.aljazeera.com/indepth/features/2012/10/201210493210185606.html>.

Rebiya Kadeer
Uyghur Independence
1 a
2 d
3 c
4 b
5 a
6 c
7 d
8 d
9 a
10 d
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