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Cultural landscape

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Leslie Arreaza

on 6 January 2013

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Transcript of Cultural landscape

The theory that the existence of numerous regional cultures in the United States is collapsing into a single national culture is the convergence hypothesis. This theory can be either refuted or supported. Someone supporting the theory would use the widespread diffusion of shopping centers, fast food restaurants, and housing types as evidence. On the other hand, one arguing against the convergence theory would look to the existence of folk culture communities as evidence. Convergence Hypothesis Any type of architecture that is found in cities ranging from small to large across the globe is urban landscape. Cities tend to practice possibilism because they have the ability to procure materials from anywhere around the globe. Urban landscape tends to look similar across the world because of the dominance of popular culture. Urban Landscape Placelessness Placelessness is not being able to tell exact location because of the similarity that there is in different places. This is often due to the domination of popular culture. Architectural structure within these areas are similar to those in other places. Examples of these are new neighborhoods, cities, and shopping centers. Popular Culture The culture present in a large, HETEROGENEOUS group that has numerous habits and CUSTOMS in common despite personal differences. Popular culture is present across the world and is causing the surviving folk culture to disappear rapidly. Examples of folk culture include fast food restaurants, housing types, and strip malls. The environment determines what type of building a society can build by limiting the array of materials available for use. For example, a village in a forest will have the ability to build with wood, but doesn't have access to stone and other materials. Environmental determinism often occurs in areas with a strong presence of folk culture. DISTANCE DECAY plays a big role in environmental determinism. People far from the shoreline aren't likely to have access to palm trees, therefore, they are less likely to have houses using those materials. Leslie, Elizabeth, Thomas, & Kerek Winston Salem Landscape Picture found on http://emergenturbanism.com/2008/06/15/the-emergence-of-a-sense-of-place Beautification (Public vs. Private) The beautification of an area is an attempt for citizens to make the area more pleasant to visit and see. Beautification of certain areas depend on CULTURAL TRAITS of the citizens as well as certain MENTIFACTS of the population. There are different types of beautification. There is private beautfication in places only changed by owners such as estates and private lakes, and there is public beautification such as parks and rivers in which communities partake and enjoy. Public beautification takes place in lots of community oriented places such as parks, streets, rivers, lakes, etc. Some cities make public beautifcation a priority while in others its just an option. Environmental Determinism Private lake house in Florida Public Road in St. Petersburg, Florida Goudy Square Park, Chicago, Illinois Public Private VS. Resort in Savusavu, Fiji Picture found on http://inhabitat.com/traditional-building-eco-tourism-at-jean-michel-cousteau-resort/ Picture taken by Bridgette Meinhold Picture taken by Ed Robins Farm outside of Amsterdam, Netherlands Environmental determinism is a strong force in areas all across the world including more developed countries (MDC) and less developed countries (LDC). Tanger Outlets in Lancaster County, Pennsylvania Picture taken by Jimi Jones Chick-fil-a in Memphis, Tennessee Skyline of Chicago, Illinois Picture found on http://www.metropolitanphotography.com/ Picture taken by Ed Robins Landscape of Leiden, Netherlands The urban landscape in different parts of the world is vastly different. In highly developed cities in the United States skyscrapers are extremely common. In cities in other parts of the world small, uniquely structured buildings are more commonplace. Providence point is a perfect example of the differences in urban landscapes throughout the world. Since Winston-Salem is not a city filled with skyscrapers, neighborhoods consist of condos, and small apartments. In the downtown area a few skyscrapers are present. Rejecting Farm near Lancaster, Pennsylvania Supporting VS. Street in Huntington, West Virginia New neighborhoods near urban areas are a major part of increasing placelessness. New neighborhoods within FUNCTIONAL regions of urban areas are characterized by house types so similar you can't tell them apart. These houses are usually CLUSTERED within a street or a few streets. These neighborhoods often act as a node in a FUNCTIONAL region because shopping centers, restaurants, and stores surround them. Possibilism Throughout human existence there have many types of settlers in many regions of the world. The idea that settlers could turn any type of land into a home by changing it and using materials they have brought or shipped exemplifies possibilism. Unlike with environmental determinism, DISTANCE DECAY is not a problem because materials are manufactured or acquired through companies which aren't necessarily local. Skyscrapers are examples of possibilism because they are built with similar materials all over the world, which are shipped and used by local construction workers. Lots of ARTIFACTS from early cultures reflect environmental determinism. Communities made pottery and clothing out of resources they obtained from surrounding areas. Many of these ARTIFACTS still exist today. Picture taken by Mathieu Helie Hanes Park ,Winston Salem Private beautification takes place in privately owned areas such as lake houses or estates. Reynolda Manor Shopping Center Picture found on http://jimijonesvisuals.com/tanger-outlets/ Picture found on http://www.city-data.com/businesses/253755938-chick-fil-a-memphis-tn.html Reynolda road is a perfect example of popular culture. Within a mile there are many fast food restaurants including a McDonalds, Burger King, Wendy's, Subway, KFC, Starbucks, Cici's Pizza, Lowe's food, and smaller businesses such as Pet Smart and Dollar General. Reynolda Road Picture found on http://www.flickr.com/photos/17538542@N00/2774151396/ The convergence hypothesis can also be argued in other most developed countries (MDC) because the popular culture is taking over folk culture in areas across the world. Picture found on http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-1263142/Burgers-big-dustbins-lids-coffins-need-cranes-obese-children-having-heart-attacks--supersized-US-town-causing-Jamie-Oliver-despair.html On Hartford Road you can clearly see the convergence hypothesis taking effect. On the left side of the road the houses are different styles and have been built over time by individuals. Every street to the left of Hartford Road is the different, the houses are clearly designed differently and SCATTERED through the neighborhood. On the right side of the road, houses are built within a two to three year period with similar structures and designs. All of the houses on the street to the right are similar and show a greater PATTERN of design than those on the left. Indoor sports complexes play a big role in possibilism worldwide. During the winter months when it's too cold outside to enjoy sports many people turn to indoor pools, indoor soccer fields, indoor hockey rinks, etc. In Winston-Salem there are indoor soccer fields, indoor pools, outdoor basketball courts, and many other places for sports for people to enjoy year round. Tanning, which is very popular in the United States, is an example of possibilism. In months when tanning outside isn't feasible due to weather a popular CUSTOM is to visit a tanning salon. Tokyo is a perfect example of possibilism in Japan. A popular japanese CUSTOM is to watch and play soccer. Since Tokyo has very little land not being occupied by buildings or streets so they have soccer fields on top of buildings. Ranch house House types From the 1950's-1960's the ranch house took over the dominant type of housing. Ranch houses have one floor with a long side facing the street. Ranch houses take up more lot space than other house types and encouraged the sprawl of urban areas. Saltbox A saltbox is a building with a long, pitched roof that slopes down to the back, generally a wooden frame house. A saltbox has just one story in the back and two stories in the front. The James Johnston House in California is a prime example of RELOCATION DIFFUSION. Although, the house type originated in New England this house is in California because as people migrated they took their ideas and culture with them. Split Level Split level houses became popular between 1950's and 1970's. The lower room consists of the family room and the garage. The intermediate level is where the kitchen, living, and dining room are, and the top level is where the bedrooms are. James Johnston House, California Filtering Filtering is a process by which a house goes from being occupied by a single family to being abandoned. Filtering happens as people begin to RELOCATE either for economic or non-economic reasons. During time periods such as the industrial revolution and western expansion many families abandoned their homes to settle in new lands or to look for jobs. Pollution Syncretism Concern for the Environment Cultural Preservation Popular culture often has the tendency to pollute the environment. The environment can conform and adapt to a certain level of waste from human activities, however, popular culture generates too much waste. When waste is produced, the majority of it is discarded in a way that that is harmful to the environment. With popular culture rapidly expanding this is becoming a growing problem. Pollution often has a negative effect on air quality, and water quality. This is seen most often in less developed countries (LDC) because of their lack of resources. Syncretism is the combining of different beliefs or ideas which are often contradictory. It can be found in various ways such as in religions, arts, and, most especially, architecture. Syncretism is often found when folk culture is converted to popular culture usually because of the MULTIPLIER EFFECT. Culture can be preserved in many ways in today's society. Words, activities, and historic buildings can be maintained and keep its originality despite the advancement of modern times. Old Salem and Bethabra Park are examples of cultural preservation in Winston-Salem. With the dominance of popular in the last decades, efforts have been made to preserve the remaining regions of folk culture. Due to the amount of pollution created everyday, people are looking for ways to live a more economically friendly life. Concern for the environment has been around for hundreds of years, but it did not become a widespread effort until the 1970's when the Environmental Protection Act was passed. Today, many people are doing their part to protect the environment. This includes recycling, driving fuel efficient cars, and using energy conserving technology. Some people build their houses with thoughts of the environment. Some people build windows facing a certain direction in order to catch sunlight more effectively, and others use solar energy as a power source. Rural Landscape Folk Culture A stream in Hanes Park Coastline of the Phillipines Picture found on http://www.theinnovationdiaries.com/2548/how-does-water-pollution-affect-humans/ House in Detroit, Michigan Picture found on http://www.fastcompany.com/1539962/detroitcircle-abandoned-house-covered-ice-not-blight-its-art A common SOCIOFACT all over the world is going to salons to get hair, makeup, and nails done. There are many "salons" which are located in buildings which were originally meant for people to live in. Many houses are converted into business across the world. This prevents the need to construct and entirely new building which can be expensive. Although Winston Salem has lots of urban areas there are also plenty of rural areas. These are areas where people practice farming and the houses are often SCATTERED. MOBILITY is more difficult because farmers are further away from urban culture and, in cases where they have cattle, they have to check on, and feed them before being travel to other parts of town. House on Shattalon Road with solar roofs for electricity The culture practiced in small, HOMOGENEOUS groups that are SCATTERED around the world. Folk culture is quickly disappearing because of the domination of popular culture. Folk culture includes the architecture present in Indian reservations, the areas of Amish settlement in the United States, and other religious settlements. Folk culture is often a VERNACULAR region because people believe each region is a part of their cultural identity. Replica of Thoreau's house in Concord, MA Picture found on http://www.4peaks.com/fthwalden.htm In rural areas there is plenty of space where owners are able to focus on their land and keeping their animals secure. Farmhouse in Skaftafell National Park, Ireland Teepees in Alberta, Canada Picture found on http://imprint.printmag.com/design-thinking/inspired-by-teepees/ House in Atlantic Beach, Florida Picture found on http://www.worldarchitectnews.com/environmentally-friendly-architecture-of-the-dune-house/ Firehouse in Atherton, California Picture found on http://inmenlo.com/2010/09/30/touring-menlo-parks-historic-fire-house-treasures/ Farm in Pfafftown The landscape of Behabara Park Many organizations help to preserve the folk culture in areas across the world. In Winston-Salem, Old Salem is being preserved as a region of folk culture because of the presence of the Moravian faith. It is a LOCALE of the settlement from hundreds of years ago. Filtering is commonplace in struggling businesses because they can't afford to stay open any longer. They are left abandoned, often for many years, until they are replaced with something new. In recent years, a concern for the environment has expanded and this is reflected most clearly in modern architecture. Street in the Georgetown neighborhood House off Shattalon Road House on Elm Street House in Pfafftown Main building in Graylyn Preserved house off Shattalon Road Landscape of Downtown Winston-Salem Landscape of the Georgetown neighborhood Soccerplex field Indoor swimming pool at Winston-Salem State University Preserved house in Bethabara Park Neighborhood in Oregon Picture found on http://members.virtualtourist.com/m/p/m/17984e/ House turned into a business off Oak Summit Road Picture found on http://aphotoaday.blogspot.com/2012/03/johnston-house-half-moon-bay.html Picture found on http://www.goldcoastneighbors.org/Service/GCNA-Beautification.html Picture found on http://www.genesisgroup.com/projects/249.php Picture found on http://lakehomesforsaleinfo.com/lake-houses-for-sale-in-lakewood-ranch-florida/ Picture found on http://www.wssoccerplex.com/galleryPhotos.aspx?projectID=7 Tanning salon in Newport, Tennessee Picture found on http://www.cockecountymarketplace.com/marketplace/businesses/tan-easy-tanning-salon/ Farm on Reynolda Road Building in Downtown Closed down business on Stratford Road This is seen most often in less developed countries (LDC) because of their lack of resources. Despite this fact, there is still a huge amount of pollution in more developed countries (MDC) because of widespread popular culture.
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