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Transcript of ADHD
1. Participants will understand the
fundamental characteristics of ADHD
2. Participants will be able to apply
at least three new strategies to
working with students with ADHD
3. Participants will brainstorm one
way they can change their thinking to better meet student's needs
Three Basic Types
Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder
Definition: neurological development disorder that affects the behavior, attention, and learning.
Myth: ADHD and ADD are the same thing...
ADD is a subcategory of ADHD
act with little regard of consequence
Speak without thinking (no filter)
difficulty focusing on one task
easily confused (spaced out)
easily "bored" with tasks
trouble sitting still
trouble staying quiet
constantly in motion
need to interact with objects
often social problems (few close friends)
1. Heredity (genetic)
2. Environmental (exposure to toxic substances)
3. Injury to brain (trauma, tumor, stroke, disease
4. Under-developed core (sedimentary lifestyle)
the result of laziness, poor motivation, low intelligence, disobedience, poor upbringing or selfishness
ADHD is a medical disorder, and it can be caused by a number of factors that affect how the brain develops and functions.
it isn't a lack of focus period; I have a hard time selecting something and giving it my FULL attention.
"when something DOES peek my curiosity, I become obsessed. and hyper-focused."
hyper-attention; find something of interest and saturate self
A difference in cognition,
not a disorder.
- Stephen Tonti
The BRAIN; neurology
symptoms differ between individuals
focusing on menial tasks
internalize negative feedback from adults
Become disruptive, acting out
Remove distractions, reduce background
Clear, concise directions, repeat as necessary
choose a child (who you believe was listening) and have them repeat directions
Use visuals, display expectations, refer to them often
Know the limits - attention spans are short
Involve the entire body, incorporate movement
Give frequent breaks, stretching and jumping
Brain Gym - cross the mid line exercises
Choose your battles!
Yes, being seating is nice. It's uniform and we like it as adults. However, these children do not have the capacity to sit for long periods of time (some need constant motion). Consider a ball chair for those really bouncy kids. Decide how important it is that they be sitting. During prayer, yes, but can they move a bit during a story (off to the side where they aren't a distraction)?
Be organized - be up front and explain your
objectives and expectations
Must attend to EVERYTHING! Cannot filter out what is important
The fidgety child may have poor muscle development which is generally associated with a sedimentary lifestyle.
Children need to be moving in every direction and expelling large amounts of energy running, jumping, kicking, spinning, in general more active.
Some studies have found correlation between TV watching at an early age (0-3) and later attention problems.
choose your battles...
TIP: Reduce the amount of stimulation and background noise.
Say what you want, not what you don't want.
Don't think about an elephant.
Only use positive language
Don't run -> walk
No talking -> Listening ears
Stop jumping -> hold still during story
It's time for a story. This means zero voices, quiet listening in your spot for 7 minutes.
After the story you will have a 2 minute stretch & move break.
The clearer the direction, the better.
Children need to know expectations...
Extended amounts of time in front of a fast moving screen (especially programming that is not logical) leads to attention difficulties later in life.
Kids with ADHD who cannot sit still or stay in one place very long may benefit from a fidget toy,
bouncy seat (air-filled cushion) or frequent breaks in order to get enough core movement (under-developed core muscles). It is not their fault they can't sit still, they literally don't have the capacity because their muscles aren't strong enough.
The idea behind a fidget is to keep the
hands occupied to free the mind. NOT simply
a toy to play with.
Set ground rules, fidget stays in lap,
if it becomes a distraction it goes
HIGH energy (now to reel it in...)
Current understanding of the neurobiology of ADHD may point to a link between structural differences in the prefrontal cortex and the 3 core symptoms of ADHD
Raise listening attention level
1. Sit up straight
2. Put both feet on the floor
3. Take a quick deep breath
If you switch between two or more tasks (e.g., typing notes and sending an email) you will lose efficiency in both tasks
Research shows ADHD brains have impairment to executive functions (cognitive management system)
Organization, prioritizing, estimating time and starting work
Focusing, sustaining and shifting attention to tasks
Regulating alertness, sustaining effort and processing speed
Managing frustration and modulating emotions (worry, disappointment, anger)
Utilizing working memory and accessing recall
Monitoring and self-regulating action (behaviors such as impulsiveness, hyperactivity and social skills)
"Being inside my head is like having several radio stations all playing at the same time so it's hard to just listen to one. It's very stressful and frustrating and so sometimes when you ask me to do something and I respond in a negative way, it's because I simply can't handle any more stress."
-HS student with ADHD
"You can really help me by pretending that you're my coach. Good coaches get the best performance from their players by encouraging them, rewarding them and praising them immediately, especially in front of others. Punishment for things that I'm not very good at only makes me feel worse about myself. And please don't embarrass me in front of the class - please talk to me privately about issues. I sometimes have trouble making and keeping friends and responding appropriately to social interactions. Please coach me on how I can do things better. Show me in detail, model it for me - I don't tend to learn well if I'm just told how to do something. And give me praise and encouragement when I try."
-student with ADHD
Directions written out for kids who read, pictures of task for those not yet reading.
If you have permission, take a picture of the student working and on-task to show them when they aren't.
Post "essential agreement" (decided upon collectively and signed by all)
High interest - can attempt a multitude of
New ways of thinking and exploring
Transitions - moments between activities, usually includes some movement
Tips: Warn students how much time remains with an elapsed time clock, displayed for all to see
Play the same song when it is time to transition, teach students to be finished transitioning by the end of song (choose song wisely, should
be a few minutes long)
Set clear expectations for transitions (noise level, movement allowed...)
Underlying Core Beliefs
1. All children can learn
2. All children are motivated
3. Learning differently means
4. We are mentors
Check them out:
Tips from Adam (with ADHD):
Foods to Help Calm
Bananas, salmon and spinach are considered brain foods that boost nervous system function and have a calming effect, therefore should be included in the diet of a child with ADHD
Use goals and rewards
Limit choices (2) as to not overwhelm
Follow a routine, be predictable
Tips for Parents:
High protein diet - Depending on their age, children need between 24 to 30 grams of protein a day. Adults need 45 to 70 grams.
FD&C Yellow No. 6 (sunset yellow)
D&C Yellow No. 10 (quinoline yellow)
FD&C Yellow No. 5 (tartrazine)
FD&C Red No. 40 (allura red)
I need a volunteer...
Factors that influence learning:
place your Factors into the levels of need
With a buddy, pick the top three needs
What factor do they fall into?
What does this tell us about student's ability to learn?