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Transcript of Leisure Travel
and Debates Around Sustainable Mobility
design by Dóri Sirály for Prezi
SUSTAINABLE TRANSPORT POLICIES
What is Leisure
Importance of Study Leisure Travel
Attitudes and behaviors comply with their everyday travel, but not for leisure travel;
Free themselves from the environmental constrains in leisure travel;
Little awareness of the consequences of leisure travel(Holden, 2011).
Inform environmental consequences of leisure travel, especially by plane(Holden, 2011).
People are not likely to reduce their leisure travel even if they are informed of the consequences of leisure travel.
Increasing use of ICT (e.g., telecommuting)
Telecommuting could decrease everyday travel;
People work at home spend more time shopping, visiting on work days than people who work away from home, which may influence the flight demands(Holden, 2011).
promote multimodal journey planners involving international travel(Holden, 2011).
People are not likely to reduce their leisure travel even facilitated with ICT help.
From London to Amsterdam VS From London to Beijing
Which transport mode would you choose, supposing you have a strong pro-environmental awareness?
Why choose air travel for London to Beijing? Even you have strong pro-environmental awareness.
troubles from transfer
For the short-haul travel, awareness campaigns and ICT could to some extent decrease CO2 emissions, but for the long-haul travel, even facilitated with multimodal journey planners, it is still hard to control CO2 emissions.
From London to Beijing
From London to Amsterdam
Quick Carbon Caculation
Access the carbon calculator using the following weblink:
‘60-20 emission’ rule
60% emissions are produced by 20% emitters( Brand and Preston, 2009).
90% emissions are produced by 20% emitters.
(US Energy Information,2010)
Pareto Principle( known as the 80-20 rule) states that, for many events, roughly 80% of the effects come from 20% of the causes.( Bunkley,2008)
An association between emissions and personal characteristics of the population( Brand and Preston, 2009).
Increasing Use of Alternative Fuels
Conventionally produced electricity in fact increases emissions.
Renewable energy sources are currently limited, relatively expensive, and are almost nonexistent for transportation fuels.
All measures have limitations, particular when set against the scale of the reduction needed, the cost of taking them up, and the timescale within which this has to take place(Hillman, 2004).
Tax and Subsidies
(e.g., developing compact cities)
First, people who live in densely populated areas may undertake longer trips in their leisure time to compensate for lack of access to a private yard and local greenery.
Secondly, people may budget approximately fixed amounts of time and money for travel(Holden, 2011).
Limits to urban density: decentralised concentration of smaller cities or polycentric development within larger cities could be promoted(Holden, 2011).
As the population getting larger, it is hard to control density.
Personal Carbon Allowance
Create incentives for reducing travel volumes as well as choosing environmentally friendly technologies, travel patterns and modes.
Promote development of city infrastructures, ICT solutions and attitudes in which the emissions from both everyday and leisure activities would be considered and reduced(Neuhoff,2008).
Air travel prices would have to go up considerably to have a restraining effect on demand, mainly because the link between prices and flying is evidently weak (Brons et al., 2002).
Studies typically find that poor consumers spend a greater proportion of their income on energy-intensive goods and fuel. Therefore cost increases in energy tend to impact the poor worse than the rich(Neuhoff,2008).
A carbon tax is a tax levied on the carbon content of fuels(Hoeller,1991). It is a form of carbon pricing.
Equal allowances for all individuals, with only rare exceptions.
Annual reduction of the allowance, signaled well in advance.
All personal transportation and household energy use included.
Allowances are tradable(Hillman, 2004).
Personal carbon trading would be a progressive policy instrument - redistributing money from the rich to the poor - as the rich use more energy than the poor, and so would need to buy allowances from them. This is in contrast to a direct carbon tax, under which all lower income people are worse off, prior to revenue redistribution(Joshua
To successfully implement the system, government must convince the public that allowance is fair; that the system is administered transparently and fairly; and that evaders are few in number, likely to be detected and liable to stiff penalties if found guilty(Roodhouse, 2007).
High administrative cost.
Trade on Open market to reduce administrative cost， but may result in monopoly and create new kind of inequality.
Australian Council for Health, Physical Education and Recreation/Royal Australian Institute of Parks and Recreation (1980) Recreation Working Paper, Adelaide: ACHPER Publications, p 3.
Brand, C. & Preston, J.M., 2009. “60-20 emission”—The unequal distribution of greenhouse gas emissions from personal, non-business travel in the UK. Transport Policy, 17(1), pp.9–19.
Bunkley, Nick (March 3, 2008), Joseph Juran, 103, Pioneer in Quality Control, Dies, New York Times
Hillman, M., 2004. How We Can Save the Planet, Penguin UK.
Hoeller, P. and M. Wallin (1991). OECD Economic Studies No. 17, Autumn 1991. Energy Prices, Taxes and Carbon Dioxide Emissions (PDF). OECD website. p. 92. Retrieved 2010-04-23.
Holden, E. & Linnerud, K., 2011. Troublesome Leisure Travel: The Contradictions of Three Sustainable Transport Policies. Urban Studies, 48(14), pp.3087–3106.
Holden, E. & Norland, I.T., 2005. Three Challenges for the Compact City as a Sustainable Urban Form: Household Consumption of Energy and Transport in Eight Residential Areas in the Greater Oslo Region.
Joshua Thumim and Vicki White, Centre for Sustainable Energy (2008). Distributional Impacts of Personal Carbon Trading: A report to the Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs. Defra, London
Marion Clawson & Jack L. Knetsch (1974) Leisure in modern America. In J. F. Murphy (ed.) Concepts of Leisure. Englewood Cliffs, NJ, Prentice-Hall, 78-90 (p. 78).
Neuhoff, K. (2008). "Tackling Carbon: How to price carbon for climate policy". Electricity Policy Research Group. Retrieved August 30, 2009.
Roodhouse, Mark (March 2007). "Rationing returns: a solution to global warming?".
High administrating cost.
Difficulties in achieving fairness.
Little public and political acceptance.
A carefully designed policy mix is needed.
Conventional sustainable transport policies should be complemented with other measures that are directed towards reducing CO2 emissions from all travel.
Policies should be designed on the basis of equity principle.
Definition of Leisure
Dictionary Definitions of 'leisure'
-Free time that can be used for rest, recreation, etc.
Collins Australian Pocket English Dictionary
-The condition of having one's time free from the demands of work or duty.
Definitions from the Literature
-Leisure is a state of mind which ordinarily is characterised by un-obligated time and willing optimism（Australian Council for HPER,1980).
-Leisure, then, is a block of unoccupied time, spare time, or free time when we are free to rest or do what we choose（Australian Council for HPER,1980).
-Leisure is largely discretionary time, to be used as one chooses(Clawson ,1974).
So we think leisure travel is….
a travel which is taken in one’s free time, with free will to either rest, to amuse oneself, to knowledge or improve skills disinterestedly or to increase voluntary participation after discharging his professional, family and social duties.
Leisure travelers play an important part in the economy (spend money on travel, accommodation, attractions, restaurants, luggage, travel health insurance and other related items.)
- Global Trend
1. The United States (developed country)
2. China (developing country)
The United States
“Of long-distance trips made in the United States,
are for leisure-vacations, visiting friends and family, and outdoor recreation-
are for business, and
are for commuting. Distant vocation destinations made more accessible and competition in the tourist industry, combined with more air route and cheap fares, rapid rail services, cruise liners, and long-distance buses have led to a spectacular geographical widening of destinations…”(Hillman, 2004)
International Flight constitutes a major part of CO2 emissions.
What Should We Do?
All sustainable transport policies have limitations, especially for long-haul leisure travel.
Train passenger volume in a single peak
‘60-20 emission’—The unequal distribution of greenhouse gas emissions from personal, non-business travel in the UK
Suggestion: Policy intervention should be aimed at the 20% emmiters.