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Landforms and Regions

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Chrislyn Inocencio

on 7 August 2013

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Transcript of Landforms and Regions

PNOY: unang babala sa mga taga-suporta ni Sultan Kiram III. Kahit dumating na ang palugit niya sa kanilang pagsuko, 'di nakinig ang mga ito.
6 na Malaysian police ang na-ambush
Pagpupulong sa pagitan ng Malaysian
at Philippine government para sa isang peaceful resolution
PM Datuk Seri Najib Tun Razak ng Malaysia: umaksyon upang protektahan ang bansa, lalo na ang mga mamamayan nito. Ipinatugis niya ang lahat ng rebeldeng sumusuporta kay Sultan Kiram III.
Nagkaroon ng 'banning' ng mga taga-suporta ni Sultan Kiram III sa Sabah ng ilang buwan, lalo na nang parating ang Harvest Festival sa Sabah.
Sultan ng Sulu
1936: Sultan Jamalul Kiram II
1950-1974: Esmail Kiram
- Binigay ang sovereign right sa Pilipinas ngunit hindi ang kita sa renta
1974-1986: Mahakutta Kiram
- Hindi alam kung sino ang susunod na tagapagmana

Geographic regions may also provide the national government a basis for dividing the country into administrative units in carrying out it's program of
socio-economic development.

It is serve as the administrative units of the state
The administrative region will comprise a group of provinces,cities & municipalities that are close adjacent to each other.

Decision-making can then be brought to the frontier that will facilitate the coordination of governmental functions within the region & ultimately for the entire world.

The lowlands of the continents
Philippine Landforms

May be either plateaus or mountains.If the summit area is small,the highland is a mountain but if the summit area is considerable,then it is a plateau.
are the major topographic feature of the Philippines which separately and in varying combination make up the landforms of the country.
It may be considered a mountainous mass
which has a general north to south trend,the most extensive and the island can be looked upon as a half-drowned mountain range,p-art of great cordillera that extends through the sea from Indonesia to Japan.
The present landforms of the Philippines have come about through the complex process of diastrophism,vulcanism and gradation.
The process which involves a movement of the crust of the earth such as one portion is raised with respect to one another.
The occurence of a tectonic earthquake is an effect of Diastrophism.
The formation of elongated mountains such as the Sierra Madre and the Cordillera is caused by the diastrophism.

The conical peaks are the result of
.Mt.Apo,Mayon Volcano and Canlaon Volcano
are examples of volcanic mountains.
Embraces all the phenomena connected with the movement of molten rocks from beneath the earth toward its surface.It is due to vulcanism that mineralization takes place.

Volcanic Eruption
is a manifestation of Vulcanism.
The erosion of the highlands and the consequent deposition of the sediments at the oceanic basin comprise the process of gradation.

It is gradation that generally cause the formation of minor landforms such as rivers,valleys,lakes,deltas,hills,rapids,
falls and and other features found in plains,plateaus and mountains.

The deltas formed by the Pasig River and Pampanga River as they enter Manila Bay are the results of gradational process.
The location of the Philippines on the western margin of the Pacific Ocean which is comparatively unstable segment of the earth's crust may help to explain the pattern of landform development.

The entire margin of the Pacific Basin from Kamchatka to Japan,Taiwan,Philippines,Indonesia and New Zealand owes much of its development to the action of the forces of
, and
volcanic activity
This region has been called by many geologists as a
"girdle of fire"
because it is a region of frequent volcanic activity.

Likewise,this area lies on the western Pacific earthquake belt as it is a region of frequent land movement which cause vibrations of the crust.
A study of the nature of the rocks beneath the ocean and the volcanic character of the archipelago made
Dr.Bailley Willis
conclude that the Philippines was formed through the marginal and peripheral eruptions of the Pacific basin.

The rocks comprising the core of our mountain systems are basic in character which are similar in nature to the rocks found beneath the sea.

The eruptions of submarine volcanoes during the remote geologic past and the piling up their extrusives caused the emergence of the islands above the sea,giving rise to the Philippine Archipelago.This may called the Pacific Theory in the origin of the Philippines.
Dr.Leopoldo Faustino
(1928) in his work on the historical geology of the country stated that Philippines originated as the
Asiatic Theory
.The similarities of flora and fauna with those of Asia is an evidence in support of the theory.

The Permian Revolution
is an important event in geologic history which took place some 200 million years ago.It was characterized by a world wide mountain-building movement.
It was during this period that the outline of the Philippines was believed to have been brought for the first time above sea level.
The elevation of the country from the oceanic floor was followed by igneous intrusions of diorite,gabbro and granodiorite which gave rise to the core of the mountain systems.
This marked a period of mineralization in the country that gave rise to the deposits of gold,silver,and copper ores of which the diorite is the parent rock.

The intrusions of gabbro were accompanied by the deposition of chromite minerals which are extensively found in Zambales.
Major Fault lines of the Philippines

The outline of the Philippines is
roughly triangular
with Batanes Island in the north as the apex and with Tawi-tawi and Saranggani Islands as the base.
It is bounded on the west by the China Sea and on the east by the Pacific Ocean,apprearing to be an elevated block between two depressions.
The eastern coast of Samar & Mindanao
-considered the 2nd deepest trench among all oceans of the world.
Skirted by the Philippine deep whose maximum depth of 10,798 meters.

Marianas Trench & South Guam
-the deepest with a depth of 11,037 meters.
The major alignment of the mountain masses of the Philippines follows the main fault lines of the country.

A fault line is a zone
of structural weaknesses where movements of extensive land masses usually take place.

A belt parallel to this principal fault line is marked by numerous volcanoes and many high elevations.
The principal Philippine fault zone extends from
northweast to southeast from the Lingayen Gulf
passing through
north Central Luzon,the Bicol Peninsula,eastern Masbate,central Leyte
& through the
mountains of eastern Mindanao.
Another fault line passes from the
southwestern part of Luzon
Mindoro,Palawan, and Borneo.

Parallel to this zone runs the narrow interrupted land bridge which connects the Philippines to Borneo by way of Palawan.

Along this fault line is another land bridge which connects the Philippines to Borneo by way of the Sulu Archipelago.
Salient Physiographic Features
1.The irregular configuration of the Archipelago and it's fragmentary character consisting of about
7,107 islands and


2.The mountainous character of the islands running on a general north to south trend and in close proximity to the coastline;

3.The great extent of the
reaching a total of
17,460 kilometers
.which is twice as long as that of United States;
.Sulu Sea
which lies between Palawan and Mindanao is the
largest internal body of water of the country

5.The structural plains lying between mountain system and the narrow and interrupted coastal plains.

6.The few large rivers and many streams which are short and swift,that descend to the sea.

7.The great variety of lakes that are of diverse origin of which
Laguna de Bay being the largest
8.The big number of active,dormant and extinct volcanoes,among which
Taal Volcano
has the most violent eruptions;

9.The presence of coral reefs fringing the shores of most of the islands and many islets are made up of corals;and

10.The vast extent of the territorial waters within the international treaty limits which comprises more than five times the land area.
The nature of the landforms of the Philippines is such that cultivable lands are found in all the country.There is no province that does not have any suitable agricultural land.

Although the highlands are not rugged,the agricultural level lands of the country are not extensive.This is a handicap in mechanized farming.
Starting from Northern Luzon,the western side is occupied by the Ilocos Coastal plain flanked in the east by the Central Cordillera.

Cagayan Valley
-lies between the Central Cordillera and Sierra Madre Mountains that extend to the shores of the Pacific Ocean.
Central Luzon
,the western margin is occupied by the Zambales Mountain system,then by the Central Plain; in the east is a continuation of the Sierra Madre.

Southern Luzon
has a diverse topography of volcanic uplands,lake regions and plain areas.
Notable volcanoes of the region include
Taal,Makiling,Banahaw,Isarog,Iriga,Mayon and Bulusan
Adequate plain areas suitable for agricultural purposes are available in both Southwestern Luzon and the Bicol region.
Bicol plain
-the most extensive level land of Southeastern Luzon.

In the
,the islands have mountainous cores.The arable lands are found along the coasts,although some interior plains are found in
sugar lands
of Negros may be considered as both coastal and interior plains.
Mindanao offers a complex topography.
There are three principal mountain ranges:

1.)the mountain ranges which form the backbone of
Zamboanga Peninsula
Misamis Occidental
Central Highland
extending from north to south ff.
the western boundary of Agusan and Davao where
Mt.Apo is located
Diwata Mountains
in the east following the coast.
The Lanao-Bukidnon plateau & the Tiruray table land
- are the principal plateaus

Cotabato Valley & Agusan
-Davao Lowland-are the principal plains.

The coastal plains through out Mindanao are also suitable for agriculture and are centers of settlements.
Landforms and Economic Development
provide the most favorable sites for economic and social progress and the lowlands of the continents.

History tells us that the cradles of ancient civilization started in the delta of the Nile River & in the valleys of the Tigris Euphrates Rivers.
A less pronounced fault line passes from
northeast Borneo
through the
Sulu Archipelago,Basilan and Zamboanga peninsula.
This situation is true in the Philippines where the plains are better developed and thickly populated.Manufacturing industries are generally built on plains where the ease of transportation facilities that bringing of raw materials to the factories as well as the distribution of finished products to consumers.
Topography of the land
-affects the climatic condition of the place.

The orientation and height of the mountain system
- affects the distribution of rainfall,local air currents and temperature of the region.

The invigorating temperature of Baguio,Tagaytay City and Marawi City are due to elevation.

-is an important factor in human settlement and development.

Agricultural development
-topography of the land is the most important factor that limits its productivity.

- is an element of landforms that is a critical factor.
It is the angle of inclination of the land measured from the horizontal.Where the slope is steep or above eigteen percent (18%),the area becomes unfit for agriculture.
Soil erosion proceeds at a faste rate since the top soil which is humus,is easily eroded and the soil becomes unproductive.

Like here in the Philippines where a great amount of rainfall is received annually.
The erosion effect of surface water is facilitated if the gradient is high.
It is estimated that
of the land area of the Philippines is suitable for cultivation.

Compare to Japan, only
of total land area is arable.It has a land of steep slopes and mountains with relatively small lowlands.An area of
sq.kilometers,the total cutivable land is only about

In contrast,the Philippines wit a land area of
sq.kilometers &has a arable land of
sq.kilometers w/c is more than twice that of Japan.
-the total area of the Philippines as arable.
It is reasonable to state that the landforms of the country as a whole is favorable for economic development.
There are no very high mountains and very steep slopes in the country.

The highest peak Mt.Apo is only
Geographic Region
-is an area in which there is some conspicuous unity in the expression of the natural and cultural setting.

In determination of the geographic regions of the Philippines,there are several factors were considered such as landforms,location,culture and the political subdivisions of the country.
The administration groupings of the provinces as provided for by the national government which are closely related to the geographic regions was adopted.

The adoption of the geographical-administration regions as published in
the 1993 Philippine Statistical Yearbook
will avoid confusion and will make it easier for students,teachers and researchers to understand and present the statistics and relevant information of the regions country.
Twelve Geographic Regions of the Philippines
sixteen (16)
regions of the Philippines are divided according to major island groups,landforms and location of the provinces.
Luzon is divided into seven(7)regions,namely:

1.) National Capital Region (NCR)
2.) Cordillera Administrative Region (CAR)
3.) Region 1 (Ilocos)
4.)Region 2 (Cagayan Valley)
5.) Region 3 (Central Luzon)
6.) Region 4 (Southern Tagalog)
7.)Region 5 (Bicol)

8.)Region 6 (Western Visayas)
9.) Region 7(Central Visayas)
10.)Region 8(Eastern Visayas)
11.)Region 9 (Western Mindanao)
12.)Region 10 (North Mindanao)
13.)Region 11 (Southern Mindanao)
14.)Region 12 (Central Mindanao)
15.) Autonomous Region of Muslim Mindanao (ARMM)
16.)Region of Caraga

National Capital Region
-which is highly urbanized
Central Luzon
-has the highest population density
Significance of Geographic Regions
*National growth and progress
*Marketing Centers
*Provide opportunities for employment in the countryside
*Reduce the so called "brain drain" problem of the nation
*Minimize migration to the NCR
*Consumer goods may be available locally

In Mindanao,it is advisable that:
*more national,provincial & municipal roads be constructed throughout the area
*A railway system

It is a second largest island in the country
Has rich in potentials for growth and development
Ideal place for agro-industrial development.
Thank you!
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