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Transcript of Emile Durkheim
WHO IS HE?
One of the greatest contributors in Sociology
A French Sociologist, Social Psychologist and Philosopher
He pioneered the making of sociology as a science during the 19th century.
Sociological Perspective of Durkheim
He believed that:
Society is not limited to ourselves, it exists beyond us
Society is more than just the poeple/ groups of people comprised in a certain place.
Major ideologies and contributions of Durkheim
- is the basis for building a sociological theory that attempts to see society as a complex system whose parts interact and work together to maintain a state of balance and solidarity for the whole.
Sociological Positivism was a way of thinking originally developed by August Comte in the 19th century. This is based on the view that true knowledge can only be acquired through direct and systematic observation and measurement.
Social Facts exist outside of an individual's physicality and yet they have a strong influence upon them.
Social facts have an independent and distinct existence of their own.
Two types of social facts:
Material - objects with physical social structures which influence the individual (e.g. physical objects such as a flag)
plays a vital role in society for it maintains solidarity through shared rituals and values at the same time having a sense of belongingness.
the fondness of depersonalized characteristics, the prototype of the group, which is unique from interpersonal attraction among individual.
Sense of belongingness –
they can remain united with their groups and it is through attaining belongingness that humans feel they are at their comfort zone
Carron & Housenblas (1998) defined cohesion as a dynamic process that reflects a group’s tendency to stick together and remain united in satisfying member’s needs.
the broad category of rules governing how any business or individual carries out its activities, with a view to correcting one or more “market failures.”
the blending and unifying of social groups, movement of minority groups such as ethnic minorities, refugees and underprivileged sections of a society into the mainstream of societies.
The Division of Labor in Society
social bonds, based on common sentiments and shared moral values, that are strong among members of preindustrial societies or primitive times; Mechanical solidarity is based on similarity, people perform similar work and share similar experience.
social bonds, based on specialization and interdependence, that are strong among members of industrial societies; People possess different talents and pursue different jobs, that resin people depending on each other.
The Elementary Forms of Religion:
The transformation of this soul into a spirit is achieved with death, which, to the primitive mind, is not unlike a prolonged sleep; and with the destruction of the body comes the idea of spirits detached from any organism and wandering about freely in space.
In sharp contrast to animism, the naturistic theory insisted that religion ultimately rests upon a real experience -- that of the principal phenomena of nature (the infinity of time, space, force, etc.) -- which is sufficient to directly arouse religious ideas in the mind.
a system of belief in which three classes of things -- the totemic emblem, the animal or plant, and the members of the clan -- are recognized as sacred; constitutes a cosmology, in which all known things are distributed among the various clans and phratries, so that everything is classified according to the social organization of the tribe.
Non-material - objects with meaning and sentiments, but can also be represented with physical objects. (e.g. values, norms, beliefs)
Positivism concentrates on the object of knowledge, abolishing the human actor doing the knowing, thereby attempting to hide the "subject" of knowledge from critical examination.
Anomie is a condition in which society provides little moral guidance to individuals. Durkheim used the term 'anomie' to describe a condition in which there is social instability in the lives of individuals due to the ambiguity and vagueness of societal norms. Thus, this indicates the relative normlessness of society.
"An individual's desire must be balanced by the claims and guidance of society."
The Four types of Suicide by Emile Durkheim:
1) Anomic suicide
2) Altruistic suicide
3) Egoistic Suicide
4) Fatalistic suicide
1.) Anomic Suicide- this occurs when one person is left alone or being abused by the people around.
2.) Altruistic Suicide- this occurs when they need to follow such tradition about their religion, political cause or shows loyalty in their society.
3.) Egoistic Suicide-this occurs when someone feels being pulled away or being attached from the society. Some cause of the weak bond around the society is retirement or loss of family member. .
4.) Fatalistic Suicide- this occurs due to excess of social regulation. This is the opposite of altruistic suicide,which arises as a result of increased control over the individual by the group.
David Emile Durkheim was best known for his great contribution of pioneering sociology, specifically in the French university system, and soon developing it as a science.
He also pointed out the macro-sociological perspective in which he viewed society as a “whole being greater than the sum of all its parts”.
Anomie, is also one of Durkheim’s greatest contributions in society for it allows the individuals in the society to witness instability in society therefore making these individuals conscious and responsive to the needs of the times.