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Transcript of Animation
Animation is a rapid display of sequences of images to create an illusion
History of animation:
There is some debate
animation was first started, however,
historians discovered a vase in Iran where
A sequence of a
a running and jumping goat.
discovered in a city called "The Burnt
city" and it was over 5000 years old.
Historians will argue that
in the Paleolithic area are the first recorded
The Paleolithic Area was a period before recorded history.
He was a special effects and film
artist who created "persistence of motion" which would be the basis of film and stop motion animation.
George was a pioneer in both film and animation. He was
born on December 8, 1861 and shifted off this mortal coil
on January 21, 1938. Stop motion animation is when you take a picture of an object and then slightly move the object and proceed to take another picture of the particular object. You repeat this process until your sequence is done.
-The first traditional animation
Walt Disney and the creation
While the first
animated film was
created in Argentina
and was called
"El Aposto" in 1926,
the Disney Brothers(Roy
and Walt) created the
Disney Brothers Cartoon
Studio in 1923.
In 1923, the Disney Brothers,
along with director Max Fleisher
combined live action with animation
with their interpretation of
""Alice in Wonderland". Happily,
the best was yet to come....
"Steamboat Willy was created in 1928 and was the first cartoon with synchronized sound. This simple story was also the first to show their immortal creation "Mickey Mouse"
Arguably the most successful and certainly the most influential of these early studios was the the John Bray Studio. Bray created the first successful cartoon series, Col. Heeza Liar, in 1914. Future studio heads Max Fleischer and Walter Lantz honed their skills here. But the studio's most important contribution to the medium was the introduction of cels. The process of inking the animator's drawings onto clear pieces of celluloid and then photographing them in succession on a single painted background was invented by Bray employee Earl Hurd in late 1914. In the first of what was to be many such incidents, the studio swallowed all the credit and most of the revenue for it's underling's contribution to the art form. Hurd lent his patent to boss John Bray, who charged royalties for other studios to use the process....an understandable business practice. Yet from an artistic standpoint this was as if Picasso had demanded exclusive rights to Cubism. It was a relatively moot point, however; the patent expired in 1932 and was not renewed. The only real loser, it seems, was Earl Hurd
Like Hurd, Otto Messmer was another studio employee who never got due credit for his innovations. But whereas Hurd's contribution to animation was a technical one, Messmer's was an artistic creation that is still recognized the world over 80 years after it's inception. Otto Messmer was employed by the Pat Sullivan Studio in 1916. Three years later he created Felix the Cat; it was a milestone in the development of animation as an artform. Not since Gertie the Dinosaur had a cartoon character exhibited such a degree of personality animation as Felix's brooding, ponderous walk. But unlike Gertie, Felix was a studio character, which meant audiences could look forward to seeing him again and again, while affording Messmer and his co-workers the opportunity to explore the possibilities of ongoing character development in animation. Meanwhile, studio head Pat Sullivan took sole credit for the creation of Felix, earning millions of dollars in royalties over the years. Messmer continued to receive his usual salary. A quiet and unassuming man, Messmer never challenged Sullivan's claim to be the father of Felix, even after Sullivan's death in 1933. Indeed, Messmer probably would have taken the secret to his grave had not animation historian John Canemaker tracked him down in 1976 (the revelation produced quite a stir in animation circles....twenty years later the story was lampooned on an episode of "The Simpsons").
Walt Disney was a huge pioneer in the world of animation. While he took a lot of credit from a lot of the other artists that worked for him, he did have a lot of say and his own work into the films. He wanted his artists to get away from a more cartooned like look and focus on more reality looking animation. This was brought to full life with the first ever feature length film "Snow White" (1937)
Looney Tunes was created in 1930 by Hugh Harmin and Rudy Ising, who were Disney veterans, left Disney and struck a deal with Warner Brother pictures to create "Looney Tunes". They wanted a more slapstick approach to their animation and quickly became direct competition for Disney Animation. Disney followed suit, however, in my humble opinion never reached the heights of Daffy and his cohorts.
What other kinds of animation are there?
(Both 2-D and 3-D
The history of claymation dates back to the invention of plasticine in 1897. The earliest surviving use of the technique is The Sculptor’s Nightmare , a spoof on the 1908 presidential election. Michael Frierson, author of the 1994 book Clay Animation: American Highlights, 1908 to the Present feels that claymation or stop-motion animation is a true art form and maybe this was the reason is never made big inroads into the animation world. Some of the milestones in claymation history include:
Art Clokey brought clay amination to the forefront with two characters Gumby and his side kick Pokey. These characters were developed with children in mind focusing on real values and telling stories with heartfelt meaning. The series ran from 1956 - 1963.
Ray Harryhausen created Jason and the Argonauts in 1963 which includes the famous animated skeleton sequence that took 4 1/2 months to create
In 1985 The Adventure of Mark Twain was produced by Will Vinton as a stop motion animated movie.
In 1986 Will Vinton creates the California raisins as part of a television commercial.
In 1988 Will Vinton produces Meet The Raisins as a stop motion animation with some conventional animation for television.
In 1989 Wallace and Gromit are introduced as the characters in the stop motion animated short A Grand Day Out produced by Nick Park.
Nick Park won an Academy Award in 1991 for Creature Comforts which featured plasticine models of zoo animals involved in 'real' human conversations which had be pre-recorded.
In 1992 Ray Harryhausen received a special Oscar for inspiring an entire generation of animators and special-effects artists
The stop motion animated short The Wrong Trousers - an Oscar winner, stars Gromit and Wallace and was produced by Nick Park in 1993
In 1993 Harry Selick directs the feature length claymation The Nightmare Before Christmas.
Wallace and Gromit star in A Close Shave - an Oscar winner, which was a stop action animated short produced by Nick Park in 1995.
The claymation movie James and the Giant Peach is directed by Henry Selick in 1996 with leading roles by Joanna Lumley, Miriam Nargolyes and Paul Terry.
In 1999 Walter Williams produces the claymation movie Saturday Night Live - The Best of Mr. Bill. Mr. Bill can never escape being crushed by something.
In 2000 Nick Park and Peter Lord direct Chicken Run - an animated movie starring Rocky and Ginger in a feature length claymation.
Nick Park directs the feature length claymation The Incredile Adventures of Wallace & Gromit in 2000.
John Whitney, Sr, was an American animator, composer and inventor, widely considered to be one of the fathers of computer animation. In the 1940s and 1950s, he and brother James created a series of experimental films made with a custom-built device based on old anti-aircraft analog computers (Kerrison Predictors) connected by servos to control the motion of lights and lit objects—the first example of motion control photography. One of Whitney's best known works from this early period was the animated title sequence from Alfred Hitchcock's 1958 film Vertigo, which he collaborated on with graphic designer Saul Bass. In 1960, Whitney established his company Motion Graphics Inc, which largely focused on producing titles for film and television, while also continuing further experimental works. In 1968, he also pioneered motion control model photography on Stanley Kubrick's movie 2001: A Space Odyssey, and the slit-scan photography scene in the film's "Star Gate" finale. All of John Whitney's sons (Michael, Mark and John Jr.) are also film-makers. John Whitney died in 1995.
-While computer animation first appeared in films like
"Westworld"(1973)and "Futureworld(1976), it was in
1982 and 1984 where two films brought computer animation to the forefront. Tron and The Last Starfighter used CGI instead of models. John Lassiter helped Pixar which would create "Toy Story", which would be the first full-lenght CGI movie.
Japanimation is very popular both in Asia and here in North America.It is also known as Manga. Japanimation really became popular in 1988 with North American audiences with the feature length film "Akira" Since the release of "Akira" other films and series have risen to popularity such as "Robotech", "Sailor Moon", "Pokemon", "Avatar:The Last Airbender","Ghost in the Shell", "Blood: The Last Vampire and the films of Hayao Miyazaki (Spirited Away, Princess Monoke, and Howl's Moving Castle.) The animations are known for their distinctive features, especially their eyes, nose and mouths and the attention to detail of the backgrounds, colours, shapes and shading. The forms of Manga are quite bold,pronounced or elongated (made longer or bigger.)
Animation:Entertainment or Art?
While most people would argue that animation is for entertainment purposes only, other artists are striving to use the medium to educate and use as an art form. The National Film Board of Canada has had a long history of visually striking, yet thought provoking storytelling (animation) A great example is the stop motion animation "Neighbors" by Norman Mclaren. An anti-war film created in 1952, it went on to win the Academy award film for best animated short.Mclaren described the film as "anti-war and anti-militarsm."
What do you think the flower represents in the story?
McLaren describes the film as "anti-war" 1. Do you agree? Why or why not?
2.Can you back up your answer with evidence?
How could you relate the story and themes going on in the animation to today's headlines and stories (An example is the recent "War on Terror in the United States against Iraq and Afghanistan."
What do you think Mclaren thinks of humanity?