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A journey through the digestive system

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Devika Sen

on 28 October 2013

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Transcript of A journey through the digestive system

A Journey through the Digestive System
Carbohydrates directly supply glucose to your body in the form of sugars. These sugars can be simple or complex. Simple sugars come from foods such as candy bars, dairy products, fruits, syrup, honey and table sugar. These are absorbed swiftly into the bloodstream and are a quick source of energy. Pasta, rice, potato, bread and vegetables (startches) make up complex sugars, which form a longer chain of glucose molecules and need to be broken down before they are released into the circulation. Glucose is carried through the bloodstream to the liver, where it is stored or used to provide energy for the work of the body.
Amino acids are small biological molecules that serve two purposes in your body: as the building blocks of large proteins and as molecules that participate in metabolic reactions, such as energy production, within your cells. Protein digestion creates a pool of single amino acids from your dietary protein, which your small intestine then absorbs. The cells throughout your body use these amino acids in a variety of ways.

My Meal
My meal does fulfill most of the body’s dietary needs and is also a good example of a balanced diet as it includes all the macronutrients. The Carbohydrates in this meal gives us energy, however it is the only non- essential macronutrient as we can get energy from protein and fat too. All carbohydrates are made of sugar some carbohydrates are only one sugar molecule such as glucose and fructose. But others are made of sugar molecules all connected together like starch. Fiber and Starch are both complex carbohydrates as they are harder to digest, but fiber since its harder to digest it helps with the breakdown of other carbohydrates preventing spikes in your blood. The protein in terms of the overall health and function of the human body, is essential for building and repairing things. Since protein is basically long chains of amino acids they are the building blocks for the proteins in our bodies like our ,hair,finger nails, muscles and hormones and digestive enzymes. It keeps our muscles functioning. The fat is also used to store energy but it also protects our cells and keep you warm. Fat transports vitamins in our body and keep our immune systems healthy and also are needed for healthy brain development.

The salmon contains:
- Bioactive Proteins (Bioactive peptides)
- Vitamin D
- Magnesium
- Vitamin B-6
-Omega 3 fatty acids.
The zucchini contains:
Fat (low)
- No cholesterol
- Vitamin C
- Vitamin B-6
-Vitamin K
The Toast contains:
- Unsaturated Fats
- Fiber
- Wheat Germ
The broccoli contains:
Fat (low)
- No cholesterol
- Sodium
- Potassium
- Calcium
- Vitamin A
- Vitamin C
- Vitamin B-6
Cherry Pie contains:
Protein (low)
- Saturated Fat
-Vitamin C
The carrots contain:
Fats (low)
Protein (low)
- Dietary Fiber
- Vitamin A
- Vitamin C
-Vitamin B-6
The Digestive System
The human digestive system is a complex series of organs and glands that processes food. In order to use the food we eat, our body has to break the food down into smaller molecules that it can process; it also has to get rid of waste.
2. Esophagus/ Stomach
After being swallowed, the chewed food enters the esophagus. The esophagus is a long tube that runs from the mouth to the stomach. It uses wave-like movements called peristalsis to force food from the throat into the stomach. The stomach is a large sack-like organ that churns food and bathes it in a strong acid called gastric acid, which contains hydrochloric acid as well. Pepsin is the chief digestive enzyme in the stomach, which breaks down proteins into polypeptides.

3. The Small Intestine
After being in the stomach the food goes in the duodenum in the duodenum, the first part of the small intestine. Lipase is produced in the pancreas and excreted into the duodenum via the pancreatic duct. Once in the small intestine it can proceed to break down fats. Bile ( produced in the liver and stored in the gall bladder), pancreatic enzymes, and other digestive enzymes produced by the inner wall of the small intestine help in the breakdown of food.
4. The Large intestine
When the food has passed through the small intestine it goes through the large intestine. In the large intestine some of the water and electrolytes (chemicals like sodium) are removed from the food. Microbes in the large intestine help in the digestive system. The food then travels upward in the ascending colon.
1. The Mouth
The digestive process begins in the mouth, food gets partly broken down by the grinding of teeth to make the food into smaller particles which can be swallowed (this is physical digestion). However this only separates molecules from each other , these actions cannot split up molecules. Many molecules cannot be absorbed but are broken down by the chemical action of salivary enzymes. Amylase gets produced by the salivary glands and converts starch and glycogen into simple sugars.
Solid waste is then stored in the rectum until it is excreted via the anus which produces feces the product of the digestive system.
The end of the digestive system
How are the Macronutrients digested?
How are carbohydrates digested?
Carbohydrate digestion begins in the mouth. The salivary glands in the mouth secrete saliva, which helps moisten the food. The food is then chewed while the salivary glands also release the enzyme salivary amylase , which begins the process of breaking down the polysaccharides( a carbohydrates whose molecules consist of a number of sugar molecules bonded together) in the carbohydrates this is called chemical digestion. After the food is chewed it is swallowed and passes through the esophagus. The mixture enters the stomach where it is known as chyme. After being in the stomach the chyme enters the duodenum. The pancreas then releases the enzyme pancreatic amylase, which breaks down the polysaccharide into a chain of only two sugars linked together. The small intestine then produces the enzymes lactase, sucrase and maltase, these break down the chain of two into single sugars that are absorbed in the small intestine. Carbohydrates that are not digested and absorbed by the small intestine, reach the the colon where they get partly broken down by intestinal bacteria. Fiber which cannot be digested, is excreted with feces.
How are proteins digested?
Protein digestion occurs mainly in the stomach and also in the small intestine. When protein food is eaten and enters the stomach, the hydrochloric acid in the stomach "denatures" the protein. This means it starts to break the protein down into short chains of amino acids joined together (peptide chains). This is also when the the hydrochloric acid also activates an enzyme called pepsin to participate in the break-down of the protein. After this, the broken down protein enters into the small intestine where it is further broken down into the di-peptides (2 amino acids joined together) by pancreatic enzymes and then into its individual amino acids by other pancreatic enzymes. The amino acids are absorbed through the small intestine and travel in the blood stream into the liver.
How are fats digested?
Fat is sent to the stomach largely unchanged. In the stomach, food usually is mixed with gastric juices and is transformed into chyme. But the watery solution of the stomach is not conductive to breaking down fat. Digestion for fat doesn’t take place until it reaches the small intestine. There are two organs in the body that secrete substances essential to fat digestion: the liver and the pancreas. The pancreas secretes lipase a substance that breaks down food, including fats. The liver secretes bile a substance that emulsifies fat. When food enters the small intestine, lipase is secreted into the area via the pancreatic duct. It then breaks down the fats into smaller particles. However lipase is only able to attack the outer layer of fatty particles. That is why bile is needed. It joins the lipase in breaking the fats after it is released through the bile duct. Once the fat is broken down and suspended (due to bile) lipase can break it down more thoroughly. After the lipase does its work the fatty acids are absorbed into our blood streams.
Amino Acids
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