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Thomas Jefferson Presidency 1801-1805
Transcript of Thomas Jefferson Presidency 1801-1805
1800: Adams vs Jefferson
Aaron Burr is running as Jefferson's VP
Electoral College had a tied vote at 73 for each guy.
*(for Jefferson and Burr)
Alexander Hamilton was the tie breaker in the HoR
12th Amendment passed: (1803)president and VP to
be on seperate ballots.
"We are all Republicans, we are all Federalists."
Extended an olive branch to the opposite party.
Wanted to establish a wise and frugal government,
states should keep vigilant to protect their rights.
*Laisezz-faire: Let (people) do (as they choose)
Jefferson’s Policies Jefferson’s Cabinet
James Madison was his SoS
Albert Gallatin was the Secretary of Treasury
*(as knowledgeable about money as Hamilton)
~Letters begin to flood in from "friends" seeking
appointment to high offices, or whom to appoint.
Reduce the National debt left by Federalists:
Cut the Army by 1/3, Navy down to 25%
Repeal all federal internal taxes (Whiskey Tax)
Government funds would only come from
Customs duties~ taxes on foreign imported goods
Jefferson and the Courts *Jefferson still tried to get plenty of Federalists to support
policies. Control of the court system was a hard fight
Judiciary Act of 1801
Adams made plenty of last minute court appointments of
Federalists, including John Marshall as Chief Justice. Some
"midnight judge" appointments had not been delivered
when Jefferson took office. He ordered them not delivered,
and one of them was addressed to William Marbury.
Marbury v. Madison "Judicial Review"
Constitution = Supreme Law of the Land
Conflict between Constitution and any other law,
Judicial Branch has a DUTY to uphold the Constitution
Marshall "broadened power" at the expense of the states
McCullough vs Maryland (1819): "elastic clause"
Gibbons vs Ogden (1824): interstates transport Democratic Republicans have the power now!! The Louisiana Purchase Western Territory
Conestoga Wagons are used to transport Americans
west to places they can farm.
1800: US western border is still the mighty Mississippi
river. Spain is in charge of the west bank of the river and
all that land. New Orleans is the most southern tip of
that territory. For the farmers, NO is vital for trade.
The French Threat
1802: The Spanish suddenly say: NO MORE RIVER USE!
Jefferson finds out the same year that Spain and France
do a super secret back door deal to trade ownership of
The US Minister to France Robert Livingston, was authorized
to offer Napolean $10 million for the land.
Revolt in Santo Domingo
(Haiti) The Island in the Carribean was viewed as a possible
naval base by Napolean.
Tousaint Louverture led an uprising of African slaves and
laborers against the plantaition owners and other French
holdings. Napolean tried to regain control, but was finally
repulsed by 1804.
The Nation Expands Detalleyrand informs US diplomats, the
Louisiana Territory is for sale.
Price: $15 Million
Livingston accompanied by James Monroe, negotiated with the French an agreement. Was it legal? Could Jefferson authorize this Louisiana Purchase? He based his decision off the governments treaty-making powers. In October 1803, the size of the US, DOUBLED.
Napolean has cash to help fund his empire in Europe!
Lewis and Clark
Intrepid explorers, YES! Willing to explore this new territory, OFCOURSE!! Funding, Hmmm?
Jefferson sent a secret message to Congress
stating that "$2500 would be used to for the purpose of extending the external commerce of the United States."
KACHING! Congress (full of Federalists) saw commercial possibilities, while Jefferson saw it as a scientific venture.
Meriwether Lewis and William Clark left St louis in spring of 1804, making their way up the Missouri River. They would be joined by Sacagewa, whom acted as a guide. After 18 months/4000 miles, they made it to the Pacific Ocean. All that time spent together, and Lewis and Clark decided to take seperate routes back. Further Exploration Lewis and Clark returned to DC to present their findings in September 1806.
The information collected info on people, plants, animals, and geography in the west.
Jefferson sent other people into the wild. Zebulon Pike led two trips in 1805 and 1807. The upper Mississippi Valley and the region now known as Colorado were his two areas of exploration. He was actually captured by the Spanish and held captive for a while.
Conclusion 1. Who was the person responsible for the tie breaker in the presidential elections of 1800?
2. What term is used to describe Jeffersons approach to governing concerning people?
3. How much did Jefferson cut the Army and Navy funding in order to save money?
4. Why was William Marbury angry?
5. What branch has a duty to uphold the Constitution?
6. What US minister helped broker the Louisiana Purchase?
7. Why did Jefferson utilize treaty making powers?