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Early Agricultural Society In Africa
Transcript of Early Agricultural Society In Africa
By: Michelle Ubah
AP World History
Egypt was the most prominent of early Africans societies.But it wasn't the only agricultural society.
Egypt emerged alongside Nubia and other agricultural societies in Sub-Saharan Africa.
Favorite geographic conditions enabled Egyptians to build an especially productive agricultural economy that supported a powerful state.
Egypt had regular dealings with both Eastern Mediterranean and Southeast Asian peoples and Nubia linked Egypt and the Eastern Mediterranean basin with the peoples and societies of Sub-Saharan Africa.
Early Agricultural Society In Africa.
African agriculture emerged in the context of gradual but big changes in the climatic conditions.
10,000 B.C.E after the end of ice age, the area was occupied by the Sahara desert which was mostly grassy steep land with allot of lakes, river and streams.
The climatic and geographic conditions were like that of the Sudan region.There was allot of grass and cattle in the environment.
Human lived by hunting wild cattle and collecting whole grains, but some others relied on fish and other aquatic animals.
Climatic Changes and the Development of Agric. in Africa.
In about 1900 B.C.E. people of the eastern Sudan domesticated cattle and many became nomadic herders.
After 7500 B.C.E they established permanent settlements and began to cultivate sorghum.Sorghum is a grain that is still widely grown in the world for human and animals consumption.
Sudan began to cultivate yams in the region between Niger and Congo rivers. There culture became very diverse over the following years. They later began to cultivate gourds, watermelon and cotton.
In 1500 B.C.E many Sudanese people formed small monarchies ruled by kings who are viewed as divine and semi-divine beings. They also developed religious beliefs that reflected their agricultural society. They recognized a single divine force as the source of good and evil, and they associated it with rain.
Early Sudanic Agriculture
After 5000 B.C.E the northern half of Africa experienced a long term climatic change that influenced social organization and agricultural throughout the region. The region became hotter than ever before.
The Sahara desert that was very cool and well-watered became very dry.
The climatic change cause many people to evacuate the Sahara desert. Many of the cultivators gathered the remaining of the water in Lake Chad before they moved south to the territory that is now Northern Uganda. But some people gathered around the Nile river which is a source of water through North Africa.
The Nile is the worlds largest river. It is 6,695 kilometers long.
Climatic Change & The Nile River
Climatic Change & The Nile River
Agriculture transformed the entire Nile River with effects that were most dramatic in Egypt. Due to the climatic change and the moving, they established societies that depended on agriculture. They turned Egypt into a productive agricultural region. Because of its productivity, Egypt was named the "Gift of the Nile".
In 10,000 B.C.E migrants from Northern Ethiopia came to the Nile valley and introduced to them a language ancestral to Coptic, the language of Ancient Egypt. Sudanese cultivators also introduced gourds and watermelons to them.
Agricultural villages and the Nile traded regularly with one another and co-operated in building irrigation networks.
The Unification's of Egypt
Unified rules came to Egypt about 3100 B.C.E in the person of the conqueror named Menes. He was an ambitious minor official from southern Egypt(known as the Upper Egypt, since the Nile flows north). Menes founded the city of Memphis . It became the political and cultural center of Egypt.
Horus was the god of the sky. The symbol included a man with the head of a hawk. The Egyptians believe that the pharaoh was the living Horus.
Amon is the sun god.
The Archaic Period and The Old Kingdom.
The symbol of authority and divine status are the massive pyramids constructed during the Old Kingdom as royal tombs. These monuments stand today at Giza, near Cairo, as a testimony to the pharaohs ability to marshal Egyptian resources. The largest pyramid of Khufu also known as Cheops.
Relations between Egypt and Nubia
Egyptians have strong interest in Nubia for both their physical and commercial reasons . They also desired products such as gold, ivory and other precious stones.
Nubian had equally strong interest in Egypt. They wanted to protect their independence from their neighbors.
Turmoil and Empire
Hyksos (foreign rulers) were horse-riding nomads. They introduced horses to Egypt and their horse-down chariots, which was learned from Hittites and Mesopotamian. They both provided with an advantage in their weaponry. They Hyksos used bronze weapons and arrows.
The rule of Hyksos provoked a strong reaction in Upper Egypt. So they organized a revolt against Hyksos. The Egyptian rulers then pushed Hyksos out of the Nile river and found the new kingdom.
The pharaoh in the new kingdom constructed temples, palaces and monumental statutes. They made new authority for the land by seizing control of regions that might pose threats to the future. The Egyptian army's also destroyed a series of small Nubian states that had arisen during the Hyksos rule.