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MAT 644: Chapter 2 - Curriculum: Foundations, Principles, and Issues

Chapter 2: For class USE
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Acquillahs Muteti

on 24 October 2013

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Transcript of MAT 644: Chapter 2 - Curriculum: Foundations, Principles, and Issues

Curriculum: Foundations, Principles, and Issues
Chapter 2: Philosophical Foundations of Curriculum

Philosophy and Curriculum Workers
The philosophy of a school and its officials influence the goals, content, and organization of its curriculum.
Our philosophy of education determines our educational decisions, choices, and alternatives.
Difference in philosophies can result in conflict.
Curriculum workers who lack a coherent philosophy can also lack direction and clarity of goal.
Philosophy as a Curriculum Source
Starting point in curriculum development
Function interdependently with other functions

Education in America
fosters growth of individual and a good society
never-ending process
Educational Philosophies
Perennialism
Draws from Realism
Essentialism
Rooted in Idealism and Realism
Progressivism
Stems from Pragmatism
Reconstructionism
Stems from Pragmatism and links Existentialist views
Equal Educational Opportunity
Modern view of educational equality emerged in the 1950s and continued through the 1990s - goes much further than the old view.

Students born in any class would have the opportunity to achieve the same.
....continued
5. One single philosophy should exclusively guide decisions about schools and curriculum.
6. The school's approach to curriculum should be politically and economically feasible.
7. Curriculum workers must help develop and design school practices in harmony with the philosophies of the school and community.
Conclusion
1. Philosophy directs our actions.
2. Curriculum reflects philosophy.
3. Major philosophical viewpoints: idealism, realism, pragmatism, and existentialism
4. Educational theories: traditional/conservative (perennialism and essentialism) and contemporary/liberal (progressivism and reconstructionism).
Major Philosophies
Traditional Philosophies: Idealism and Realism

Contemporary Philosophies: Pragmatism and Existentialism
John Dewey
-Way of thinking that
gives meaning to lives
Ralph Tyler
His philosophy in relation to school purposes
studies of learners and contemporary life
suggestions of subject specialists
use of psychology and philosophy in learning
John Goodlad
Agreement on the nature and purpose of education before curriculum's philosophy, aims, and goals can be pursued
Idealism
Plato, Hegel, Froebel, Harris, Butler, Kant

Intellectual process (conceptual matters)
Liberal Arts Curriculum

Knowledge: rethinking latent ideas
Values: Absolute and eternal
Realism
Aristotle, Aquinas, Pestalozzi, Broudy, Wild

Curriculum: separate content areas, lessons that cultivate logic, value Sciences as much as Arts
Education should illuminate purpose.
Things happen for a reason.

Knowledge: Sensation & Abstraction
Values: Absolute & eternal; based on nature's law
Pragmatism
AKA Experimentalism
- Darwin, Peirce, James, Dewey

Based on change, process, relativity
Teaching focused on problem solving and critical thinking; exploratory

Knowledge: Experience, use of scientific method
Values: Situational and relative; subject to change
Existentialism
(US) Greene, Kneller, Morris

Mainly European philosophy
Stress individualism and personal self-fulfillment
Curriculum: experiences and subjects that lend to individual freedom and choice

Knowledge: Personal choice
Values: Freely chosen - based on individual's perception
Perennialism
Oldest, Most Conservative
Rooted in Realism
Dominated in early 1900s
3 R's + Latin, Greek, Grammar, Rhetoric, Logic, Geometry (secondary)
Self-centered curriculum
Socratic method
One for ALL
Essentialism
Reaffirming the best and brightest
Western philosophy; roots to Aristotle's development of realism
Mastering skills, facts, and concepts
Minimal student input
Emphasizes academics (not play) and cognitive thinking (not whole child)
Students lack basic skills and knowledge needed to survive job market
Progressivism
Developed from pragmatic philosophy
Contemporary reform movement in educational, social, and political affairs
Democracy and education go hand-in-hand
Teachers guide students in problem solving and scientific projects
Students analyze and interpret data; draw own conclusions
NO rote learning, lesson recitations, textbook authority
Student centered, cooperative groups
Reconstructionism
Based on socialist and utopian ideas
Middle and Upper class
Society centered education
Teacher unions
Students and teachers must improve society
Curriculum based on social issues and services; emphasizes language, communication skills, personal bios, art, poetry, dance, drama, lit, psychology, ethics
Internationalists
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