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MAT 644: Chapter 2 - Curriculum: Foundations, Principles, and Issues
Transcript of MAT 644: Chapter 2 - Curriculum: Foundations, Principles, and Issues
Chapter 2: Philosophical Foundations of Curriculum
Philosophy and Curriculum Workers
The philosophy of a school and its officials influence the goals, content, and organization of its curriculum.
Our philosophy of education determines our educational decisions, choices, and alternatives.
Difference in philosophies can result in conflict.
Curriculum workers who lack a coherent philosophy can also lack direction and clarity of goal.
Philosophy as a Curriculum Source
Starting point in curriculum development
Function interdependently with other functions
Education in America
fosters growth of individual and a good society
Draws from Realism
Rooted in Idealism and Realism
Stems from Pragmatism
Stems from Pragmatism and links Existentialist views
Equal Educational Opportunity
Modern view of educational equality emerged in the 1950s and continued through the 1990s - goes much further than the old view.
Students born in any class would have the opportunity to achieve the same.
5. One single philosophy should exclusively guide decisions about schools and curriculum.
6. The school's approach to curriculum should be politically and economically feasible.
7. Curriculum workers must help develop and design school practices in harmony with the philosophies of the school and community.
1. Philosophy directs our actions.
2. Curriculum reflects philosophy.
3. Major philosophical viewpoints: idealism, realism, pragmatism, and existentialism
4. Educational theories: traditional/conservative (perennialism and essentialism) and contemporary/liberal (progressivism and reconstructionism).
Traditional Philosophies: Idealism and Realism
Contemporary Philosophies: Pragmatism and Existentialism
-Way of thinking that
gives meaning to lives
His philosophy in relation to school purposes
studies of learners and contemporary life
suggestions of subject specialists
use of psychology and philosophy in learning
Agreement on the nature and purpose of education before curriculum's philosophy, aims, and goals can be pursued
Plato, Hegel, Froebel, Harris, Butler, Kant
Intellectual process (conceptual matters)
Liberal Arts Curriculum
Knowledge: rethinking latent ideas
Values: Absolute and eternal
Aristotle, Aquinas, Pestalozzi, Broudy, Wild
Curriculum: separate content areas, lessons that cultivate logic, value Sciences as much as Arts
Education should illuminate purpose.
Things happen for a reason.
Knowledge: Sensation & Abstraction
Values: Absolute & eternal; based on nature's law
- Darwin, Peirce, James, Dewey
Based on change, process, relativity
Teaching focused on problem solving and critical thinking; exploratory
Knowledge: Experience, use of scientific method
Values: Situational and relative; subject to change
(US) Greene, Kneller, Morris
Mainly European philosophy
Stress individualism and personal self-fulfillment
Curriculum: experiences and subjects that lend to individual freedom and choice
Knowledge: Personal choice
Values: Freely chosen - based on individual's perception
Oldest, Most Conservative
Rooted in Realism
Dominated in early 1900s
3 R's + Latin, Greek, Grammar, Rhetoric, Logic, Geometry (secondary)
One for ALL
Reaffirming the best and brightest
Western philosophy; roots to Aristotle's development of realism
Mastering skills, facts, and concepts
Minimal student input
Emphasizes academics (not play) and cognitive thinking (not whole child)
Students lack basic skills and knowledge needed to survive job market
Developed from pragmatic philosophy
Contemporary reform movement in educational, social, and political affairs
Democracy and education go hand-in-hand
Teachers guide students in problem solving and scientific projects
Students analyze and interpret data; draw own conclusions
NO rote learning, lesson recitations, textbook authority
Student centered, cooperative groups
Based on socialist and utopian ideas
Middle and Upper class
Society centered education
Students and teachers must improve society
Curriculum based on social issues and services; emphasizes language, communication skills, personal bios, art, poetry, dance, drama, lit, psychology, ethics