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Nitrogen Cycle

THe Nitrogen Cycle explored in depth
by

Burzin Rao

on 25 March 2016

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Transcript of Nitrogen Cycle

Surprises!
Haber Bosch Process
What is Nitrogen
Nitrogen is a chemical element.
Its symbol is "N", and its atomic number is 7
It Exists in our atmosphere as a Diatomic molecule
And it makes up 78% of out atmosphere
Aside from Carbon, it is the
most important
element on earth
There are many cycles on Earth
Like:
The Water cycle,
Carbon cycle,
Rock cycle
...AND...
THE NITROGEN CYCLE
Thats
What is the nitrogen cycle
Nitrogen circulation between air and plants: the series of processes by which nitrogen is converted from a gas in the atmosphere to nitrogen-containing substances in soil and living organisms, then reconverted to a gas.
Here is a picture
But, well go into more detail
Where does Nitrogen originate from:
-all organisms have nitrogen
food inputs, fruits vegetables, plants all have nitrogen
-Water
-Atmosphere
HOWEVER...
The nitrogen does not remain there
When these organisms die, or pass waste
DECOMPOSERS
...like Fungi and bacteria...
Perform chemical processes, and feed on organic matter
Which means dead matter
...and leave behind several substances such as...
Nitrogen in a different form
Ammonium
N2 - NH4
Ammonium
Decomposition
Nitrogen Fixation
Nitrogen fixation
+soil carbon and nutrients, such as phosphorus, potassium, calcium, and magnesium; changes in pH; and a significant increase in soil nitrogen.
In decomposition, Enzymes Involved are:
GS: Gln Synthetase (Cytosolic & PLastid)
GOGAT: Glu 2-oxoglutarate aminotransferase (Ferredoxin & NADH dependent)
GDH: Glu Dehydrogenase:
This process is known as Ammonification
...OR...
..Mineralization
A symbiotic relationship, is when two species equally benefit, when they are together, or work together
Bacteria like:
Rhizobia
Frankias
Cyanobacteria
...Inhabit the roots of plants and fix nitrogen. They get carbohydrates from the plant and give some fixed nitrogen in return
Nitrogen fixing bacteria are also in the soil
these include:
-Anaerobes
-Facultative anaerobes
-Aerobes
-Phototrophs
That's a symbiotic relationship
Now we have
Ammonium
Then it goes in reverse
Nitrosomonas
-This bacteria oxidizes ammonia into nitrite as a metabolic process
There are two steps in Nitrification
NH4 - NO2
What happened?
Ammonia turned to Nitrite
THEN...
NO2 becomes NO3
Nitrobacter
plays an important role by oxidizing nitrite into nitrate in soil
Next, One of two things happen
Uptake by plants which is also called
Assimilation
These plants will eventually die or get eaten by animals which will die
OR
Denitryfying Bacteria
What are Denitryfying Bacteria
Micro-organisms whose action results in the conversion of nitrates in soil to free atmospheric nitrogen
And this reduces soil fertility
Some denitrifiers are :
Thiobacillus denitrificans,
Micrococcus denitrificans,
some species of Serratia,
Pseudomonas,
Achromobacter
Nitrogen
PLants
Ammonium
Nitrites
Nitrates
Nitrogen fixing (plant roots)
Nitrogen fixing (soil)
Denitrification
Nitrogen fixing
Nitrogen fixing
Climate Change
Nitrogen based fertilizers
Fertilizers help plants thrive on land they would not be able to usually grow on. They are often overused and can cause various problems. Access fertilizers sinks to soil, where it feeds weeds rather than native plants.
Nitrogen then washes into waterways causing a surplus of nutrients, a situation called eutrophication. In freshwater lakes, rivers, and streams eutrophication causes aquatic weeds to grow unchecked. They sometimes fill entire lakes, rivers, or streams.
Nitrogen causes algae to grow and reproduce very quickly,using up a lot of oxygen which leads to the death of species and other plants

Additionally the nitrogen needs to complete its cycle which creates more N2 in our atmosphere and acid rain is also created in our atmosphere
Nitrogen Emmisions
Nitrous oxide is created when there is more Nitrogen than oxygen present . (two N bond with one O)
N2O is involved in the destruction of stratospheric ozone, which shields the earth from
biologically harmful ultra-violet radiation

Emmisions also create more Nitrogen present in the atmosphere meaning, the soil is less fertile
This is bad
Very
bad
How Can we fix this
Decrease Nitrogen outputs to the atmosphere from:
Cars
Factories
Etc
Thanks for Watching
Atmosphere
Use a smaller amount of fertilizer and avoid applying before huge amounts of rain
Full transcript