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Timeline of Policies and Practices in Indigenous Aboriginal Education 1814 - 2014
Transcript of Timeline of Policies and Practices in Indigenous Aboriginal Education 1814 - 2014
Warning: Please be aware that this digital resource may contain images and references to Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people who may have passed away.
Department of Aboriginal Affairs
In 1982 the New South Wales National Aboriginal Education Committee, with guidance from the Aboriginal Education Consultative Group and in the pursuit of social justice and equity, introduced the Aboriginal Education Policy. This policy acknowledged the need for the
of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders to develop a more
appropriate pedagogy in
cluding the need for schools to develop relationships of
equity with local Aboriginal
and Torres Strait Islander communities. It also stres
sed the importance for stud
ents and teachers to be
provided with adequate r
esources to understand the
value of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander cultur
e to Australia (Partington &
Beresford, 2003). In 1987 it become mandatory for schoo
ls to incorporate Aborig
inal and Torres Strait Islander Studies into the curriculum wi
a focus on c
ulture and history (Burridge & Chodkiewicz, 2012) to improve cross-cultural understanding. Although this policy was mandatory schools with minimal Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander students saw it as irrelevant and often overlooked this requirement (Cadzow, 2010).
1982 - 1987
Aboriginal Education Policy
1989 - 2004
National Aboriginal Education Policy
2000 - 2003
National Indigenous English Literacy and Numeracy Strategy
Click the link for the Story of Maria Lock
Govenor Lachlan Macquarie
In 1814 Governor Lachlan Macquarie opened the Native Institution, the first boarding school for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders with aims in improving their living conditions (Burridge & Chodkiewicz, 2012). While the Native Institution educated the likes of Maria Lock, “an amazing Aboriginal woman and historical figure” (Tait, 2003, p1), it’s practices are seen as “an important precursor to the policies that led to the stolen generations” (Parry, 2014, p1) as children were forbidden to return to their parents or their traditional ways. With the introduction of the
Public Instruction Act 1880
it became compulsory for all children to attend school and in 1884 the New South Wales government started providing dedicated Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander schools in populations
that warranted it. In lower populated areas Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children were allowed to attend public schools provided they were “clean, clad and courteous” (Fletcher, 1989. p1) however with opposition from white families many Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander students were turned away (Fletcher, 1989).
Exclusion on Demand Policy
In 1902 John Perry, the New South Wales Minister for Education, introduced the Exclusion On Demand Policy. This policy empowered schools to deny enrolment of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children when requested by white parents, which were generally based on poor hygiene and disease claims. This perpetuated the prejudice view they were inferior and encouraged the
development of segregation (Windschuttle, 2009). Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander parents were forced to relocate for their children to receive a European education, strengthening the need for separate Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander schools. This created a new problem, these schools were generally deemed for
those of only Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander decent and those of mixed decent were turned away. Between 1900 and 1970 in excess of 50,000 mixed decent Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders were denied access to both public and ‘special’ Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander schools, preventing them from receiving a European education (Purdie, Reid, Frigo, Stone & Kleinhenz, 2011).
1814 - 1884
The Native Institution and the Public Instruction Act
Figure 6. John Perry (n.d.)
1909 - 1915
Aborigines Protection Act 1909 and Aborigines Protection Amending Act 1915
"I have no identity really...I don’t know nothing about my culture. I don’t know nothing about the land and the language" — Cynthia Sariago, daughter of a stolen woman
Our [bad] health is a legacy of our childhood. — Christina Green, former Parramatta Girls Home inmate
When some of us finally met our parents, it was almost impossible to bridge the language and culture gap.”, says Uncle George Tongerie, who had been placed in Colebrook Home at Quorn, SA
"I was hurting and had found no way of safely healing the pain. So I turned the pain, anger, resentment and bitterness inwards..." - Joy Makepeace, taken away aged less than a year old
Quotes retrieved from http://www.creativespirits.info/aboriginalculture/politics/stolen-generations-effects-and-consequences
Figure 8. The Taking of the Children (Cook, 1999)
The Aborigines Protection Act 1909
gave the Aboriginal Protection Board power to legally intervene where it found Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children to be in neglect. The Board could forcibly take custody of children and put them in the care of white families, creating what is now known as the Stolen Generation.
The Aborigines Protection Amending Act 1915
granted even greater power after it removed the requirement for court orders to declare neglect (Find & Connect, 2014). The Board would now have the ability to “assume full…custody of the child of any [Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander], if…it is satisfied that such a course is in the interest of…such child” (s. 13a
Aborigines Protection Amending Act
, 1915). This process of disempowerment lead to loss of cultural identity and language, substance and alcohol abuse, violence, depression and other mental illnesses, many challenges Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders still face today (Korff, 2015c).
Video 1. The Stolen generation (Redbackrock, 2007)
2010 - 2014
1937 - 1940
Assimilation Policy and the the Aborigines Progressive Association
In 1937 the Commonwealth-State conference on Aboriginal Affairs introduced a national assimilation policy transitioning from a ‘protection’ focus towards ensuring Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders advanced as equals alongside European Australians. Policy makers believed those of only Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander
meeting of the Aborigines Progressive Association (Muswellbrook Shire Council Community Services, n.d.) and working with the Australian Aborigines Progressive Association fought for equality in areas such as education, land ownership and wages and called for the end of the Aborigines Protection Board in 1940.
The 1967 referendum and the Aboriginal Study Grant Scheme
Buckskin, P. (2009).
Review of Australian Directions in Indigenous Education 2005–2008
. Adelaide, SA: David Unaipon College of Indigenous Education and Research
Burridge, n. & Chodkiewicz, A. (2012)
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Cadzow, A. (2010).
Retrieved from http://ab-ed.boardofstudies.nsw.edu.au/go/aboriginal-studies/timeline/timeline-1967-2007
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Department of Social Services, (2014).
ABSTUDY Policy Manual
. Retrieved from https://docs.employment.gov.au/system/files/doc/other/2014_abstudy_policy_manual.docx
Find & Connect. (2014).
Aborigines Protection Act 1909 (1909 - 1969)
. Retrieved from http://www.findandconnect.gov.au/guide/nsw/NE00010
Fletcher, J. (1989).
Clean, Clad and Courteous
. NSW: Southwood Press
Korff, J. (2015a).
Aboriginal History Timeline (1900 - 1969)
. Retrieved from http://www.creativespirits.info/aboriginalculture/history/aboriginal-history-timeline-1900-1969
Korff, J. (2015b).
Aboriginal Self-Determination and Autonomy
. Retrieved from http://www.creativespirits.info/aboriginalculture/selfdetermination/
Korff, J. (2015c).
Stolen Generations — Effects and Consequences
. Retrieved from http://www.creativespirits.info/aboriginalculture/politics/stolen-generations-effects-and-consequences
Ministerial Council for Education, Early Childhood Development and Youth Affairs. (2000).
Achieving Educational Equality for Australia’s Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Peoples
. Canberra, ACT: Ministerial Council on Education, Employment Training and Youth Affairs
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Australian Directions in Indigenous Education 2005–2008
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Ministerial Council for Education, Early Childhood Development and Youth Affairs & Education Services Australia. (n.d.).
Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Education Action Plan 2010-2014
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Muswellbrook Shire Council Community Services. (n.d.)
Growing in Understanding: History
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(1814 - 1833)
. Retrieved from http://www.findandconnect.gov.au/ref/nsw/biogs/NE01632b.htm#tab5
Partington, G. & Beresford, Q. (2003)
Reform and Resistance in Aboriginal Education. Seperate and Unequal: an outline of Aboriginal Education 1900-1990
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Purdie, N., Reid, K., Frigo, T., Stone, A. and Kleinhenz, E. (2011).
Literacy and Numeracy Learning: Lessons from the Longitudinal Literacy and Numeracy Study for Indigenous Students.
ACER Research Monograph 65
Standing Council on School Education and Early Childhood, and Education Services Australia (2013).
Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Education Action Plan 2010–2014: 2012 Annual Report.
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Tait, N. (2003).
The Story of Maria Locke
. Retrieved from http://www.abc.net.au/lateline/content/2003/hc48.htm
University of Notre Dame Australia, (2015).
“Can”t Be Whet You Can’t See”: The Transition Of Aboriginal And Torres Strait Islander Students To Higher Education
. Retrieved from http://www.nd.edu.au/research/olt-aboriginal-and-torres-strait-islander-transition/policy-timeline
Windschuttle, K. (2009).
The Fabrication of Aboriginal History
. Retrieved from http://www.stolengenerations.info/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=97:public-education-for-aboriginal-children&Itemid=60
Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Education Action Plan
AUSTRALIAN DIRECTIONS IN INDIGENOUS EDUCATION
2005 - 2009
Figure 2. Timeline (Schiller, 2015)
The 1967 referendum was an important historical turning point enabling constitutional recognition of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders as part of the Australian nation. This empowered the Federal Government to address Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander childrens’ right to an education (University of Notre Dame Australia, 2015). In 1969 the Government introduced the Aboriginal Study Grants Scheme providing financial assistance to Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander primary school students who continued education past the compulsory education age. This was expanded in 1970 with the Aboriginal Secondary Grants Scheme assisting high school students continue through to tertiary education. These schemes aimed to “increase Indigenous participation in key educational activities”, “promote equity of educational opportunity”’ and “improve educational outcomes” (Department of Social Services, 2014. p17). The 1971 census found more than 25% of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders still had never attended school in comparison to only 1% of the European Australian population confirming improved Government efforts were still required (Partington & Beresford, 2003).
1972 - 1973
In 1972 the practice by some principals of refusing enrolment to Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children in state schools officially ended. This, along with the introduction of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander teacher’s aids, not only improved student attendance but also their educational outcomes (Cadzow, 2010). In 1973 The Whitlam Government established the Department of Aboriginal Affairs (DAA) providing resources that allowed Aboriginal and Torres Strait
In 2000 the National Indigenous English Literacy and Numeracy Strategy (NIELNS) was launched by Prime Minister John Howard with the objective “To achieve literacy and numeracy for Indigenous students at levels comparable to those achieved by other young Australians” (Department of Education Science and Training, 2003, p5). In a 2003 report it was found that a great majority of NIELNS initiatives had significantly improved on their baseline results and were attributed to four key areas. Student attendance was improved by providing school transport and by delivering
After numerous past ill funded, Short-term solutions there have more recently been improvements in the educational outcomes of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders. With increased enrolment and participation there have been greater achievements in school, apprenticeship and tertiary education. These results are encouraging however there are still a disproportionate number of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander students dropping out of high school or not continuing on to tertiary study, leading to social and economic disadvantage (Buckskin, 2009). The Australia Directions In Indigenous Education 2005-2008 endorsed a set of recommendations to promote Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander students’ engagement in schools (MCEECDYA, 2006). A review in 2009 found so long as there was adequate funding with the appropriate monitoring of execution a long term version of this model would be successful in closing this educational gap (Buckskin, 2009).
The Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Education Action Plan 2010-2014 is a united approach between the Federal, State and Territory governments towards Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander education. It’s aims are to hasten the rate of improvement in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander educational outcomes so they receive “a high-quality, world-standard education to equip them for life in the 21st century” (MCEECDYA & Education Services Australia, n.d. p3). The Plan aims for a holistic approach on a national, systematic and local level and has targets of providing early childhood education to all Aboriginal and Torres Strait
Islanders to take back their self-determination (Korff, 2015b). Aided by the new National Aboriginal Consultative Committee the DAA were able to negotiate and debate with government for better conditions for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders. Around the same time issues surrounding disease and mortality rate of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children were identified and the DAA helped in improving the health and educational outcomes of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders (Korff, 2015b).
decent would die out due to inability to withstand civilisation (Burridge & Chodkiewicz, 2012) while those of mixed-decent could be ‘absorbed’ into white society. Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children were removed from homes under the ruse of abuse and neglect claims however the true agenda was to educate them to a white standard and destroy their Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander identity and culture (Korff, 2015a). In retaliation to this policy William 'Bill' Ferguson called the founding
In 1989 the Federal Government implemented the National Aboriginal Education Policy (NAEP) and assumed responsibility for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander education. The NAEP promoted involvement of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders in decision-making to promote equality of educational access, participation and outcomes (Ministerial Council for Education, Early Childhood Development and Youth Affairs [MCEECDYA], 2000). A 1996 review found an increased cultural respect in schools was still required (Cadzow, 2010) and additional funding would be needed for teachers to better implement NAEP in their classrooms and to education parent on the importance of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander education and culture in the curriculum. A further review in 2004 found while Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders and the white societies were working closer together to improve educational outcomes there were still areas that needed urgent attention if educational equality was to be achieved. It concluded the Aboriginal Education and Training Plan be established to address these concerns (Burridge & Chodkiewicz, 2012).
Figure 19. Aboriginal Border 2 (n.d)
1967 - 1970
Islander four year olds and closing the gap in their life expectancy, infant mortality rate, literacy and numeracy, Year 12 completion and employment outcomes (Burridge & Chodkiewicz, 2012). Results to date are encouraging with an increase in school-community partnerships and an increased percentage of personal learning plans aiding in closing the gap in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander educational outcomes (Standing Council on School Education and Early Childhood, and Education Services Australia, 2013).
Figure 1. Australian Aboriginal Flag (NAIDOC, 2014a)
Figure 3. Flag of the Torres Strait Islands (NAIDOC, 2014b)
Figure 4. The Annual Meeting of the Native Tribes at Parramatta, New South Wales, the Governor Meeting Them (Earle, 1826)
Figure 5. Ln-Governor-Lachlan Macquarie (Opie, 1805)
Figure 7. Workplace-Discrimination (n.d.)
Figure 9. Scroll Opened (n.d.)
Figure 10. Aboriginal Art (n.d.)
Figure 11. Absorption of Natives Predicted (Northern Territory News, 1954)
Figure 12. Robert Ferguson (Australian Institute of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Studies, n.d.)
Figure 13. Tingari Dreaming Canvas (1989)
Figure 14. Aboriginal Vote (1967)
Figure 15. Vote Yes for Aboriginal Rights (1967)
Figure 16. Aboriginal Border 1 (n.d.)
Figure 17. Department of Aboriginal Affairs (n.d.)
Figure 18. Partnerships Border (n.d.)
Figure 21. Tribal Round Pattern (n.d.)
Figure 21. MCEECDYA & Education Services Australia. (n.d.)
Figure 22. Close The Gap (n.d.)
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Aboriginal Vote [online image]
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William Ferguson [online image]
. Retrieved from http://indigenousrights.net.au/people/pagination/william_ferguson
Cook, C. (1999).
The Taking of the Children [online image].
Retrieved from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stolen_Generations
Close The Gap [online image].
(n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.vahs.org.au/history-pre-1967/
Department of Aboriginal Affairs (n.d.).
DAA Logo [online image]
. Retrieved from http://www.yuwaalaraay.org/whomadethis.html
Earle, A. (1826).
The Annual Meeting of the Native Tribes at Parramatta, New South Wales, the Governor Meeting Them [painting]
. National Library of Australia.
Gordon Bryant Paper. (1967).
Vote Yes For Aboriginal Rights [online image].
Retrieved from http://indigenousrights.net.au/timeline/1960-69
John Howard [online image].
(n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.smh.com.au/news/book-reviews/silencing-dissent/2007/02/09/1170524288496.html
John Perry [online image].
(n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.echo.net.au/2015/03/ballina-electorate-overview/
Ministerial council for education, early childhood development and youth affairs & Education Services Australia. (n.d.).
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Carlton South, Victoria: NEAL.
Australian Aboriginal Flag [online image]
. Retrieved from http://www.naidoc.org.au/indigenous-australian-flags
Flag of the Torres Strait Islands [online image].
Retrieved from http://www.naidoc.org.au/indigenous-australian-flags
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Absorption of Natives Predicted [online image]
. Retrieved from http://www.law.uq.edu.au/jmk-assimilation
Opie, J. (1805).
Ln-Governor-Lachlan Macquarie [Painting]
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Partnerships Border [online image]
. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.whealth.com.au/mtww/mtww_artwork_partnerships.html
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Scroll Opened [online image]
. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://tesfanon.wikia.com/wiki/File:Scroll_opened.png
Intro mit Tiersounds on Live Aus Dem Crocodile71
. Crazy-Musik Retrieved from http://www.last.fm/music/+free-music-downloads/australian+aboriginal
Tingari Dreaming Canvas [online image].
(1989). Retrieved from http://news.aboriginalartdirectory.com/2014/07/aboriginal-art-comes-home.php
Tribal Round Pattern [online image]
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(n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.gss-law.net/practice-areas/
lessons that support, value and represent their culture with the addition of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander staff; Health issues and concentration were improved by nutrition programs and health testing; School transitions and student confidence were improved by increased number of preschool years; and, educational outcomes were improved by increasing teacher training in culture awareness and engagement and by engaging Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander parents (Department of Education Science and Training, 2003).
Figure 20. John Howard (n.d.)
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