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World History Timeline
Transcript of World History Timeline
500 B.C.E End of Classical Era
circa 500 C.E 2,000,000 B.C.E People begin using stone tools. This indicates a developement in sophistication from using bone tools. 9,000 B.C.E
Neolithic Agricultural Revolution This revolution occured when nomadic tribes began settling down into farming villages. It was one of the first major steps to becoming a civilization for these groups of people. circa 4,000 B.C.E
Skara Brae Skara Brae is an early Neolithic village in norhtern Scotland. The town shows signs of having traded with another village miles and milesw away. This shows a very high level of sophistication and that cultures were being shared long before written history. circa 1550 - 1100 B.C.E
War with Nubia During the New Kingdom, Egypt conquered Nubia whom they had been fighting with for centuries. This was a great success that led to an abundance of ivory, cattle, and slaves for Egypt. However, during the decline of Egypt, Nubia regained their independence. circa 3300- 2500 B.C.E
Sumer and Egypt Sumer shows signs of trading as far as Egypt and India during its time. This allows for the sharing of ideas between the civilizations which is obvious within its art and religion in some cases. circa 1500-300 B.C.E
Phoenicians Throughout its life, Phoenicia was known for trading its precious purple dye, ivory, and art. By trading this much, they affected how other cutures formed and shaped their own culture in away that usually calls for war. 522 - 486 B.C.E
The Rule of Darius Darius was in control of the largest empire ever seen at the time: Persia. He single handedly combined all of the cultures of the people he had conquered and created a unified empire. He did this through remaking the roads, improving trade, and making Zoroaster's religion the main religion of Persia. All the while, Persia remained fairly accpeting of the poeple they conquered. circa 1000 B.C.E
King David of Israel King David is credited as being the first king of the kingdom of Israel. He is also said to have united the twelve tribes of Israel in order to create this kingdom. This implies that he combined all their cultures into a single one, having only their belief in the same God to guide him. 722 B.C.E
Israel and the Assyrians In 722 B.C.E, Israel fell to the Assyrians. This fall came after the death of their last great ruler, Solomon. Similarly, in 586 B.C.E, Judah fell to the Babylonians. the great temple in Jerusalem was destroyed and it would be a great many years until Hebrews would be free to be their own civilization again and worship their own God. 2500 B.C.E
Harappa and Mohenjo-Daro Harrapa and Mohenjo-Daro are identical, sister cities in the Indus River Valley. They had a sophisticated trading system that involved boats carrying cotton, pearls, copper, grain, and ivory combs to cities as far away as Sumer; helping ot form the culture found there. 324 B.C.E
Maurya Empire The Maurya Empire was founded by Chanaragupta Maurya in Classical India. This empire would last for about two centuries and reestablished the caste system and gender roles. It also began the collection of taxes, encouraged trade, and used spies. During this empire's reign, the focus of religion would shift from Hinduism to Buddhism because of the ruler Asoka. 320 C.E.
The Golden Age The Gupta Empire was founded by Chandra Gupta and followed a few centuries in which India had no centralized government. The Gupta Empire changed the the way the country was governed by using the 'hands off' approach and allowing individual governors to make laws for their provinces. The Golden Age was the time during this empire which was culturally diverse and rich. Philosophy and literature flourished and Hinduism was revived; scholars and artists were common and well respected. 221 B.C.E
Unified China China became a unified country for the first time during the Qin Dynasty. This dynasty was run with legalism, keeping the citizens very obedient through harsh punishment and many law enforcement officers. However, much culture was lost during this dynasty because most of the focus was on the military rather than the arts. 475-221 B.C.E
The Warring States Period During this period, China was made up of many different states which were all ruled by different dynasties. China was not unified and, therefore, was constantly at war with itself. An example of some of the major dynasties that ruled during this time are the Xia, the Shang, and the Zhou dynasties. From this harsh period came many different philosophies such as Confusianism and Taoism. They were all focused on finding different ways to end the chaos. 1100-256 B.C,E
The Mandate of Heaven The Mandate of Heaven was a philosophy that stated that fate and the world would tell you when a dynasty's rule was ready to end. It was created during the rule of the Zhou Dynasty. The mandate also explained the dynastic cycle: the cycle by which a dynasty's reign should follow. In the beginning, taxes are low and life is generally good, but, as time goes on, government becomes corrupt and must be overthrown. 268 B.C.E
Rule of Asoka A few years into his leadership, Asoka fought a long war in an attempt to conquer the Deccan region. Over 100,000 people died, horrifying Asoka. Because of this war, Asoka converted to Buddhism which allowed him to reject violence and live more at peace. He made changes throughout the sub-continent and eventually led to the spread of Buddhism in Asia. Black- Indus River Valley
Dark Pink- Hebrews
Light Blue- India
Light Green- China
= new village/civilization
= change in religion/philosophy 100 C.E
Buddhism in China As trade with India increased, Indian missionaries and Buddhist merchants made their way over to China, taking Buddhism with them. This religion was rejected at first due to the contradicting beliefs of filial piety and solitary meditation. However, over time, Buddhism grew and combined with Taoism and some Confucianism; it was accepted within China. 210 B.C.E
Fall of the Qin Dynasty Shi Huangdi, ruler of the Qin Empire, died in 210 B.C.E, leaving in his wake an angry country. During his reign, he had enforced harsh punishment, heavy taxes, and forced labor. His focus had been on the military rather than the culture and he managed to keep everything together. However, after his death, people began revolting and the laws collapsed. It was not until a peasant named Liu Bang took control, claimed the Mandate or Heaven, and founded the Han Dynasty that order was restored. 141 - 87 B.C.E
Wudi's Reign Wudi was an emperor during the Han Dynasty. He focused on improving the economy and government. He chose officials that followed Confucianism which was a change from the previous Qin Dynasty's legalist ways. Wudi improved the roads and canals which greatly improved trade between the cities and other countries. He also took total control of the businesses, making them more efficient. 202 B.C.E - 220 C.E.
The Han Dynasty The Han Dynasty followed the Qin Dynasty and lasted much longer. It brought back the cultural diversion that China had once had. It also brought about many inventions and advances in technology and medicine. For example, suspension bridges, wheelbarrows, and fishing reels were invented. People were also experimenting with herbal medicines during this period. The arts and public works became common once again and jade and ivory became popular among artisans. Bronzeworkers and silkmakers became popular as well. Red- Greece/Rome
Dark Gray- Europe
Light Pink- Japan 1100-800 B.C.E
The Dark Ages This was a period in Greece during which much of the culture was lost and trade went down significantly. People abandoned the cities and skills such as writing were lost. At the end of this period, it was as if an entire new civilization had to be built on the clean slate that had been left behind. 600 B.C.E
Solon In Athens Solon came to power in 600 B.c.E and with came many new philosophies. He opened voting to all free men and abolished slavery within the city-state. In total, he created modern day democracy- an idea that affects many cultures and governments to this day. 550 B.C.E
Peisistratus in Athens Peisistratus was considered a 'tyrant', but not is a bad way. He, like Solon, made many changes within the government of Athens. He focused on building roads and making the public works beautiful. His rule had successful economic growth, but, after his death, the city-state fell apart and became victim to civil wars. 570-508 B.C.E
Cleisthenes Takes Control Cleithenes was the ruler of Sparta who had been invited by the Athens nobles to take control of Athens in order to say it from itself. He came to power as a tyrant and went to work once again changing the philosophies of government. He created Demes, or neighborhoods, based on geographical location and gave people citizenship within them. He allowed citizens rather than just nobles to participate in the government. There was an assembly that met every ten days and a council of 500. Members of the council were selected from Demes and, for once, not based on wealth or lineage. 461 B.C.E
the Peloponesian League The Peloponesian League was created to destroy the Delian League. The Delian League had been run by Athens, but Athens had become corrupt and was taking advantage of the other city-states. Sparta led the Peloponesian League into a war with Athens that did not end until 404 B.C.E with the fall of Athens, a city-state that had previously been an innovative leader within Greece. circa. 339-323 B.C.E
Legacy of Alexander the Great Alexander the Great was a ruler of the Greek empire that expanded the territory exponentially during his reign. However, his legacy is greater than that. During his rule, Alexander developed the Greek culture and worked hard to combine it with the cultures of those he had conquered (ex: the Persian Empire, the Egyptians, etc.). He also made Koine the official language of education. These effects would last for about 800 years. 264-146 B.C.E
The Punic Wars The Punic Wars were a series of three wars between Rome and Carthage. At the time, both were big powers in the world and, naturally, that made them rivals. The first two wars were left virtually open ended and it took Rome completely destroying Carthage to bring about an end. This victory proved Rome's superior military and gave Rome better access to sea trade which helped them become even more powerful. 212 C.E
Caracalla's Citizenship In an attempt to help fix the problem that the Bread & Circuses had covered up, Caracalla made it so that every free male had a chance at working as part of the government. This was one of the first times that it was not strictly nobles that had a say in legal decisions. This also helped to close the gap between the rich and poor that had been created by a corrupted senate. It brought about a sense of equality. 522-486 B.C.E
Darius I vs. Greece Darius I was set on expanding the Persian Empire so, in 522 B.C.E, he attacked the Greek city-states. Many of the city-states surrendered, but Athens and Sparta did not. Many battles took place and slowly the city-states began rebelling until they became one united force against Persia. The city-states were fighting on their homeland and this gave them an advantage, but the had decentralized governments which made victory harder for them to obtain. It was not until around 479 B.C.E that the city-states managed to run Persia out of the territory forever. 480 B.C.E
Xerxes I Takes Over Darius I died in 480 B.C.E, leaving the battle between the Greek city-states and Persia on the shoulders of Xerxes I. Xerxes I led the Persians through the Battles at Thermoplylea and salamis. However, only a year after coming to power, Xerxes I watched Persia lose and forced to leave the Greek city-states and Europe completely. Beginning of Post Classical Era
1000 C.E. End of Post Classical Era
1500 C.E. 800 C.E.
Charlemagne is crowned Emperor Charlemagne brought back education in Europe during a time of darkness. He essentially brought back what little culture he could and saved much of the literature of the time. He standardized writing and had books copied for studying and future reference. 1095 C.E.
The First Crusades The Crusades brought back huge amounts of information and knowledge that most of Europe had not seen in hundreds of years. It also opened up trade routes with the Muslim world which had been rapidly expanding while Europe sat in a dark age. This helped advance the European culture and pushed them towards a renaissance. 1347 C.E.
The Black Death The Black Death stopped Europe in its tracks, killing off a third of its population and ending the improvement that had been occurring over the past century. It was not a war but it did as much damage. Education once again stopped and cities were wiped out. This hurt the trade horribly because it destroyed huge trading spots like Italy. 220 C.E
Fall of Rome The Fall of Rome didn't just represent the fall of a single civilization, it marked the beginning of an approximately 500 year long Dark Age throughout all of Europe. When Rome fell, the ideas of logic, math, science and so on fell with it. Religion took over and cities broke up, setting Europe hundreds of years behind the Muslim world. 618 C.E.
The Tang Dynasty The Tang Dynasty reunified China after the fall of the Sui Dynasty. China was expanded through Tibet and Vietnam and Buddhism became more popular. The civil exam was once again improved and for a time China truly flourished. Porcelain became popular and, therefore, trade increased. 1279 C.E
The Rise of the Mongols Ghengis Khan controlled much of the Eastern world through the Mongolian Empire. In China, the Mongols mixed with much of the Chinese government, however, this transition took a generation. They founded the Yuan Dynasty thanks to Kublai Khan, Ghengis's grandson. Cruelty was used as a method of discipline and they trusted foreigners more than the natives of China. This expanded foreign trade and bettered the economy. 1100 C.E.
Explosive Powder Explosive powder was invented in China in 1100 C.E. and changed the way war was fought forever. It added a new aspect and fighting style, making China more advanced and stronger. It was originally used for harmless fireworks though. 1290 C.E.
Islam in Southeast Asia Islam began spreading towards Asia in 1290 C.E., bringing with it an age of discovery. The Muslim Golden Age adopted many of the asian inventions and many Muslim scholars were asian. Islam enforced learning and going to universities and so on. Asia offered thousands of new people and minds, making the possibilities for improvement virtually endless. 645 C.E.
Nakatomi no Kamatari Nakatomi seized control of Japan and shaped it drastically. He adopted many Chinese cultural traits including the architecture and religion. These adaptations are still around to this day in Japan. 1368 - 1644 C.E.
The Ming Dynasty The Ming Dynasty was the last native imperial dynasty in China. It served as a cultural Golden Age, painting schools were established and huge public works were created like the Forbidden City. Literacy increased as paper became cheaper to produce, creating the idea of reading for pleasure. It also meant that most of the upper and middle class could read and write, adding yet another addition to the growing culture. Operas and ceramics also became popular at this time. 1410 C,E, Giovanni Medici Medici was a very wealthy banker in Italy. He and his family used their money to support the arts and trade of Italy. This support helped the middle class grow and Italy begin having traits like painting for pleasure rather than for work. These changes helped to inspire the rest of Europe, leading the the Renaissance. 1436 C.E
The Printing Press In 1436, a German inventor created the printing press. His name was Gutenberg and, with his invention, he greatly supported the growing Renaissance. is printing press allowed for the easy spread of the new, rapidly-developing swarm of ideas. Thus, the printing press helped to spread the Renaissance. 1488 C.E.
The Flying Machine Leonardo di Vinci did not have one event that specifically changed the Renaissance or Europe completely; he is more of a perfect example of what the Renaissance was as a whole. He was a man of many talents: an inventor, painter, and a scientist just to name a few. His wild inventions, like the Flying Machine, were far ahead of his time and an inspiration to Renaissance Italians who were just learning what it was to experiment and think freely. 1512 C.E.
Michelangelo Michelangleo was primarily a sculptor during the Renaissance but was pushed by the Catholic Church to paint the Sistine Chapel. His art work showed the drastic changes that had been made during the Renaissance: bright colors and depth perspective, for example. His awe-inspiring work is still around to this day. 1517-1530 C.E.
Martin Luther Martin Luther told the Catholic Church, the most powerful force in Europe, 99 problems that he had with them. He then formed a new religion and started the Protestant Reformation. His voice was heard by thousands who followed his footsteps and left the Catholic church. This great change proved to people that not even the Catholic Church was invincible and that everyone could and should speak their mind. 1534 C.E.
King Henry VIII & the Church of England King Henry VIII, who had promised to always support the Catholic church, turned his back on them after they refused to annul his marriage. He became the head of the Church of England, annulling many of his marriages and being one of the few people, including Luther, to break away from the Catholic Church. 1562 C.E.
The French Wars of Religion In France, the new Protestant church was tired of being discriminated in the predominately Catholic nation. Two major families went to war, causing chaos across the country during what was once a prosperous time. 1611 C.E
Galileo Galilei During the Scientific Revolution, the Europe was obsessed with the universe and how it worked. At the forefront of this new study was Galileo, an astronomer and physicist. His work about the solar system directly opposed the Catholic church and he was persecuted because of it. The church feared that if they were no longer viewed as infallible, then they would lose their power over the people. Alas, punishing Galileo alone was not enough as he was joined by many other astronomers and scientists like Copernicus and eventually the truth was revealed. 1564-1616 C.E
William Shakespeare William Shakespeare was an English poet during the Renaissance and the Scientific Revolution. His work was varied and often poked fun at the English royalty. He was an example of the new, educated middle class and also of the brilliance that was shining through in the now free thinking world. He also shows that people were learning how to stand up to the government even if it was subtle and portrayed in the form of comedy and tragedy. 1687 C.E.
Isaac Newton Probably one of the most famous faces of the Scientific Revolution and the Enlightenment, Isaac Newton made a model of the universe based on universal gravitational laws. He is known as the man that put together the biggest discoveries of the Scientific Revolution and found out what they all meant. His laws are used in the modern day and taught in science classes. Many of his discoveries were based off of research done by the ancient Greeks and Romans. This information was often used during the Enlightenment as scientists began delving deeper into old works in order to discovery the truth about the world. 1791 C.E.
Mozart's Die Zauberflote Mozart's work, Die Zauberflote, is just one example of how the music world changed with the Enlightenment. Public performances became more and more common, composers began supporting amateur musicians by selling pieces of music they could play and the style of music generally changed. The study of music also became more respected and slowly many new musicians were created. 1745-1827 C.E.
Alessandro Volta Volta was an Italian scientist known for creating the battery. He also isolated methane for the first time. He inspired many other future scientists who advanced on his work. He was a professor and even had a memorial named after him -Tempio Voltiano. 1666 C.E.
University of Science The University of Science opened its doors in 1666 C.E. in Paris. It really represents the start of the Enlightenment in Paris. Until that point, Paris had very little scientists and almost none of the existing ones worked with the state. The college trained new scientists and also caused the status of scientists to go up in society; people began wanting to be a scientist because it was viewed as a very good position. 1759-1797 C.E.
Mary Wollstonecraft Wollstonecraft was one of the world's original feminists. She was a British author during the Enlightenment who spoke out openly about equality between men and women. She inspired many females and her own daughter was a famous writer: the author of Frankenstein. 1694-1778 C.E.
Voltaire Voltaire was a French writer and advocate during the Enlightenment. He believed in the separation of church and state and openly fought for freedom of speech and expression. Voltaire headed a large group of anti-biblical people. Anti-biblical people spoke out against the Catholic Church and wrote about them in a negative light. Very few, however, dared to write in famous, public newspapers like Voltaire. He headed a wave of courage that swept through Europe during the Enlightenment. John Locke
1632-1704 John Locke was an English philosopher who created many political philosophies and inspired changes throughout the world. Locke preached religious tolerance and challenged the old way of thinking. He is also considered the Father of Classical Liberalism. While the Enlightenment had many effects on the scientific world, Locke proves that it also had a greater political effect. Jean-Jacques Rousseau
1712-1778 Rousseau was a philosopher, writer, and composer. He had many theories about education, believing that it should be a part of being a citizen. He helped to inspire the French Revolution. As a writer, he created the modern autobiography and as a composer, he discovered many new theories and is credited with defining the Romantic period. Rousseau was a strong supporter of the government being run by the 'general will' of the people, not the Catholic Church necessarily. Baron De Montesquieu
1689-1755 The Baron was a French political thinker. Much like John Locke, Montesquieu had a major effect on the modern political system. He is credited with the idea of breaking the government into three branches: executive, legislative and judicial. His idea obviously is still active today in the United States. He represents the huge changes in philosophy that were taking place during the Enlightenment and the 1st Global Age. Berlin Conference
1885 The Berlin conference was the gathering of European powers in order to divide up the land in Africa. This led to countries' populations increasing, power spreading, and increased trade across the world. It also is the reason for the Trans-Atlantic Slave trade and speculated to be one of the causes of World War 1. It was here that the 1st Global Age really took off and the world has remained connected to this day because of it.