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Psychology unit 8: Motivation, Emotion, and Stress
Transcript of Psychology unit 8: Motivation, Emotion, and Stress
ex: Rooting reflex in babies imprinting The problem with
It only labels behaviors "instincts", it does not explain them. It also has difficulty explaining complex behaviors Long period of
time without food Body produces
physiological hunger response Food seeking behavior NOM NOM!! Drive Reduction Theory
- states that motivated behavior moves the organism toward a reduction of arousal or tension, and so returns it to homeostasis homeostasis is the tendency of the body to return to or maintain a balanced state But consider this: If drive reduction theory is true, then why do we enjoy scary movies and roller coasters? Incentives are external stimuli, reinforcers, or rewards that motivate behavior You are REALLY hungry Drive: Hunger
Very Strong You see this Incentive: Sandwich
Very Weak You're very not hungry Drive: Hunger
Very weak/none You see this Incentive: dessert
Very Strong What kind of
motivation is it? Extrinsic motivation Intrinsic motivation -doing something to get a desired reward or result
(getting incentives, reducing drives, whatever) -doing something because it is rewarding in and of itself Is it for Achievement? The TAT remember this? - three scoring areas: need for affiliation, need for power, need for achievement -people who scored high in need for achievement wrote about obtaining high levels of performance, unique accomplishments, long term careers or goals, etc. achievement motivation: a desire for significant accomplishment in, or mastery of, things, people, or ideas Is it Fear? Fear of Failure Fear of Success -when a person's primary motivation is not to succeed, but to avoid failing at something. Easy Medium Hard -persons who experience fear of failure are more likely to pick the very easy one (because it's guarenteed they won't fail) or the very hard one (blame is placed on difficulty of task, rather than failure on their part) -when a person's primary motivation is to NOT succeed Happiness Definition: tendency to form judgments relative to a neutral level defined by our prior experience Why does happiness seem elastic?
Happiness is relative, as suggested by these two phenomena: e.g. Getting your first cellphone may have been an amazing experience, but after getting used to it and upgrading to smartphones, getting the same cellphone today would be mediocre at best. Carroll Izard Looked at babies, and concluded that there are ten basic emotions from birth What are the emotions? Two Predictors How to be Happier 1. Realize that enduring happiness doesn't come from
2. Take control of your time.
3. Act happy.
4. Seek work and leisure that engage your skills.
5. Join the "movement" movement.
6. Give your body the sleep it wants.
7. Give priority to close relationships.
8. Focus beyond self.
9. Be grateful.
10. Nurture your spiritual self. of Happiness Levels of happiness varies across cultures.
Happiness tends to fluctuate around a "happiness set-point"
Genes affect happiness. e.g. individualistic countries tend to value self-esteem matters, communal societies value social acceptance matters. Have high self-esteem (in individualistic countries
Be optimistic, outgoing, and agreeable.
Have close friendships or a satisfying marriage.
Have work and leisure that engage their skills.
Have a meaningful religious faith.
Sleep well and exercise. Age.
Gender (women are more often depressed, but also more often joyful.
Physical attractiveness. Researchers have found that happy people tend to: Happiness seems unrelated to factors such as: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Oddx7UXUnwk We adjust our neutral levels based on experience.
We then notice and react to variations up or down from these levels. "If you woke up tomorrow to your utopia...you would feel euphoric, for a time. But then you would gradually recalibrate your adaption level." Phenomena: PSYCHOLOGICAL ADAPTATION COMPARISON And Happiness Definition: the perception that one is worse off relative to those with whom one compares oneself. e.g. People with clunky cellphones may compare themselves with people that have sleek iPhones and feel poorly about themselves; but they don't stop to think about their position compared to people without phones. When we compare what we have to someone in a higher class, we feel bad. But when we compare what we have to what a person in a lower class has, we feel better Comparing ourselves with those who are better off creates envy.
Counting our blessings as we compare ourselves with those less well off boosts our contentment. and Prior Experience Adaptation-level phenomenon: Others' Attainments and Relative Deprivation joy
anger Robert Plutchik -suggests that there are eight distinctly different emotions Why do we have emotions?
What is their purpose? Communication Survival -emotions help us to communicate across cultural and language boundaries, maybe even farther... -Fear and anger, which are part of the "fight or flight" response, protect from immediate harm. We either fight the dangerous thing or take flight from it. Microexpressions How do we experience emotion? When we experience an emotional response, that response can be broken down into 3 parts: -what are we thinking? -How we display the feeling
(Facial expressions, body language) There are three main ideas on the order of these three parts in the actual experience of emotion -Emotions like love and compassion also have roots in survival, but are more about protecting the group than the individual Take in environmental cues (a.k.a. look at what's happening around you) Stimulus Cognitive Response
(thought: "I'm Afraid!") Physiological Response
(Trembling, sweating, etc.) Cannon-Bard Stimulus Cognition
(thought: "I'm Afraid!") Schachter-Singer Stimulus Cognition
(thought: "I'm Afraid!") Another cool idea... Opponent Process Theory -states that when we feel one emotion strongly enough, we will naturally experience the opposing emotion afterward Emotional Intelligence -Ability to perceive, imagine and understand emotions and to use that information to make judgments. General Adaptation Syndrome Stress Photo based on: 'horizon' by pierreyves @ flickr Negative Stress Types of Stress Approach-Approach Conflict Situations Phase 1: Alarm Stress is the anxious or threatening feeling that comes from... -a perception of a situation as tense or...
-a significant change in situation Distress Eustress Positive Stress Avoidance-Avoidance Approach-Avoidance Double Approach-Avoidance "Caught between a rock and a hard place" "The lesser of two evils" Conflict where there are two choices, both of which are good Conflict where there are two choices, both of which are bad Conflict where there is a single choice with both positive and negative aspects Conflict where there are two or more choices, all of which have both positive and negative aspects (We want to "approach" both options) -fight or flight response kicks in Phase 2: Resistance Phase 3: Exhaustion -person attempts to deal with stressor -the body uses up all of its resources. Person becomes tired and disoriented Methods people have developed to deal with stress Coping Mechanisms 1.Active coping: trying to deal with the stressor
2.Planning: coming up with a long term strategy to deal with the problem
3.Focused activity: lessening distractions to concentrate only on the stressor
4.Social Support: seeking the help of friends and family
5.Acceptance: learn to live with the situation
6.Positive reinterpretation: look for the “silver lining”
7.Venting: “letting it all out”
8.Denial: ignoring the stressor completely
9.Behavioral disengagement: do something else
10.Mental disengagement: think about something else -Direct coping -Defensive coping facing a problem directly avoiding a problem Stress and Personality Type A Type A people are... Type B people are... Type B 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 Casual about apointments Never Late 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 Not competitive Very Competitive 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 Good Listener Anticipates what others are going to say 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 Never feel rushed (even under pressure) Always rushed 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 Can wait patiently Impatient while waiting 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 Takes things one at a time Tries to do many things at once 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 Slow deliberate talker Emphatic in speech fast and forceful 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 Cares about satisfying him/ herself no matter what others think Wants good job recognized by others 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 Slow doing things Fast (eating, walking, etc.) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 Easy going Hard driving 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 Expresses feelings Hides feelings 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 Many outside interests Few interests outside work/home 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 Unambitious Ambitious 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 Casual Eager to get things done intense
prone to anger apathetic
easy-going Motivation Why do we... ...come to class? ...eat lunch? ...have boyfriends and
girlfriends? Motivation ...go to the movies? ...get jobs? ...do any of the things we do? ...do our chores? Joy <---------------> Sadness
Anger <---------------> Fear
Disgust <--------------->Trust disgust
guilt Emotion Cognitive Physiological Behavioral Behavioral Response Behavioral Response Physiological Response
(Trembling, sweating, etc.) Physiological Response
(Trembling, sweating, etc.) Behavioral Response (We want to "avoid" both options) We want to "approach" some parts of the choice and "avoid" other parts We want to "approach" some parts of both options and "avoid" some parts of both options If you scored above a 76, you are... If you scored below a 76, you are... Ignores the biological Abraham Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs Fear and Anger Love and Compassion James-Lange -the body's involuntary response (hormone release, pupil dilation, etc.)