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The Reconstruction

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Theresa Nelson

on 24 November 2013

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Transcript of The Reconstruction

The Reconstruction

The Reconstruction, 1865-1877
Effects of the Civil War:
over 1 million lives lost
3 million men enlisted
more casualties then any other war Americans fought in
enormous property damage in the South
approximately $20 billion debt,
$3 billion loans/taxes
$2.8 billion loan interest
$2 billion borrowed by Confederacy
land, factories, farm animals, and railroads are all damaged in the south
Wade-Davis Bill, 1864
Johnson's Plan, 1865
Johnson was unhappy with the earlier plans
Congress thought his plans would be harsh, but they were not
What the plan said:
Iron Clad Oath must be signed by the majority of Southerners
new Southern state Constitutions had to say they
approved
the 13th Amendment
Former Confederate office holders could not hold a government job--LOTS OF CONTROVERSY
Reconstruction Act, ,1867
*Final Plan
All Southerners had to ratify Amendment 14
state government was dismissed if they didn't
South was divided into 5 military districes controlled by the Union army to make sure Amend. 14 was being followed
New state constitutions were written to include the 14th Amend.
voting rights guaranteed to black citizens
Southerners were angry
Southern states had to rewrite their Constitutions
Lincoln's Proclamation of Amnesty/ 10% Plan, 1863
Results:
Southerners accepted Johnson's plan and he accepted their new governments
Radical Republicans thought ti was too easy-they would not accept Southern representatives in Congress
rioting against freedman, KKK, Congress still arguing
Johnson:
vetoed the Reconstruction Plan
rejected the 14th Amendment
vetoed the civil rights act
Radical Republicans wanted to impeach him
What the Federal Goverment had to do:
rebuild industry and railroads
repay loans
restore money
pay veterans
unite the government
*Rebuild the South and reenter them into the Union=Reconstruction
Segregation-
Plessy v. Ferguson
Ku Klux Klan (KKK)
Black Codes/Jim Crow Laws
Amendments 13-15
Democratic Party Gains popularity in the South
South grows economically by using industry and agriculture
10% of male voters had to write an oath of allegiance (Iron Clad Oath) to say they would never rebel against the Union again
Congress did not like this plan because they thought it was too easy.
Southerners had to rewrite their Contitutions
Majority of voters had to sign the Iron Clad Oath
Amendment had to be stated in the state Constitutions
Voted against by the radical Republicans because they wanted to make it harder to punish the South
Since Congress could not decide on a Reconstruction Plan:
Black Codes/Jim Crow Laws leads to the KKK (Ku Klux Klan)
Freedom Bureau
helps the new freedmen adjust to their freedoms
Andrew Johnson comes to power and doesn't agree with the Radical Republicans
Radical Republicans
Led by Thaddeus Stevens and Charles Sumpter
encouraged harsh punishment of the South
wanted to break the power of Southern plantation owners and ensure the rights of freedmen
control Congress because the Southern states were not readmitted yet-didn't want the Southerners to be part of Congress
Radical Republians did not approve, so it did not pass
Impeachment of Johnson
Impeached for violationg the Tenure in Office Act
firing cabinet members and military officials without the approval of the Senate
Found not guilty by one vote
Johnson's career is now over and he is now considered a lame duck. Radical Republicans take over the Federal Government
Effects of the Reconstruction Act
South was under severe stress from the Radical Republicans enforcing the plan
Consequences of the Radical Republican's Reconstruction was felt by the south
southern state governments were changed
13th and 14th Amendments
caused racism, discrimination, and segregation in southern culture behind the Union's back
KKK
Scalawags and carpetbaggers interfered in Southern government
Sharecropping kept blacks and poor white trash in the circle of poverty
black codes (Jim Crow Laws)
The Election of 1868
Ulysses S. Grant (Republican) won because many Southerners didn't want to vote.
Politics after the Reconstruction
Southern governments didn't fully accept the 13th and 14th Amendments
taxes increased
Northerners grew tired of Reconstruction
Southern governments went back to the way they were before
Democrat became the party of the South
blacks backed the Republicans
Because of these things, Reconstruction really didn't work because of racism
Plessy V. Ferguson
Presidential Election of 1872
Grant wins a second term
3 scandals
Credit Mobilier
Grant invested in an illegal 3rd railroad monopoly and was making money illegally
Salary Grab
Grant signed a Congressional pay raise when the nation was in debt
Belknap issue
Secretary of the Interior, whose job it is to maintain national land, sold public land to an oil company and got a GRAFT
SKIMMED MONEY FROM THE PRICE
The end of Reconstruction
Presidential Election of 1876
Rutherford B. Hayes (Republican) v. Samuel Tilden (Democrat)
Tilden won popular vote
electoral votes were lost from Florida, Louisiana, and South Carolina
A Congressional committee was created that was majority Republican, they voted for Hayes
Compromise 1877
Hayes campainges in FL, LA, and SC and says he will take away the military districts
Hayes wins the electoral votes
ends Reconstruction
Results of Reconstruction
Blacks were citizens who were free and had rights (Amendments 12-15)
Blacks were left insecure
black codes, economics, sharecropping, KKK
Plessy v. Ferguson-1876
created segregation in schools
Southern constutions were rewritten but they didn't live up to their Constitutions
return to white supremacy (whites rule the South and blacks)
RECONSTRUCTION STARTED TO HEAL PHYSICALLY, BUT IT DID NOT HEAL THE BIG ISSUES
blacks moved west, away from the South
formed Colorado in 1976
Full transcript