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Copy of Literary Devices in The Hunger Games

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Melanie Stanic

on 12 March 2013

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Transcript of Copy of Literary Devices in The Hunger Games

Literary Devices in The Hunger Games Foreshadowing Conflict Person vs. Self Person vs. Society Person vs. Person Person vs. Nature Symbolism -people, places, events or things that have meaning in themselves but also stand for something beyond themselves. Ex. - The main example of symbolism in The Hunger Games is the mockingjay pin. The mockingjay eventually becomes the symbol of the rebellion in the third book. The mockingjays were descended from muttations that backfired on the capitol, and they are a species that was never meant to be created. This symbolizes the rebel forces. -a struggle between two opposing forces -a struggle within the person; an internal conflict -a person is in a conflict with a society -a person is involved in a direct conflict with one or more person(s) -a person struggles to survive in a natural environment -hints or clues that an author uses to suggest what will happen later in the story Ex. - Katniss has an internal conflict in all of the books, but mainly in the end of the second book and in the third book. In the first book and most of the second book, the cause of her internal conflict is her confusion and indecision about her feelings for Peeta and, to some extent, her feelings for Gale. In the end of the second book and the third book, she spends most of her time in a slightly crazy state. she attempts suicide and is psychologically damaged by her participation in the Hunger Games. Ex. - Because all of the books in the trilogy are dystopian novels, there is automatically person vs. society conflict. This is the central conflict of the trilogy, and the reason for the rebellions in the second and third books. Ex. - In the first book and a little of the second book, there is person vs. person conflict between Katniss and the other tributes in the arena. In the second and third book, there is person vs. person conflict between Katniss and President Snow. Ex. - When Katniss is in the arena, she faces all kinds of natural obstacles, such as fire (however manmade), burns, dehydration, starvation, thunderstorms, and poison berries, among other things. Protagonist Antagonist -the leading character of a literary work -the person or thing that is working against the protagonist Author's Purpose -the author's reason for writing the piece of literature Ex. - Suzanne Collins' purpose is to entertain. However, as this book is a dystopian novel, she is also trying to warn us about some of the current trends in our world. Ex. - The main antagonist is the Capitol. In the last two books, the focus is on a specific person from the capitol, President Snow. It is not the other tributes in the Hunger Games, because in the second book, Haymitch asks Katniss to remember who the enemy is while she is in the arena. Ex. - Katniss is the protagonist of all three books in The Hunger Games trilogy. The story is told from her perspective, and she is the main character. Allusion -a direct or indirect reference to a statement, person, place, or event from literature, the arts, history, religion, mythology, politics, sports, or the sciences. The Hunger Games is an allusion to Ancient Rome. The Hunger Games themselves are a reference to the gladiator fights, where they would take children away from their hoimes at a young age and train them to fight for other people's entertainment. Many of the character names in The Hunger Games are Latin, like Flavius, Octavia, Cinna, and Cato. Even the name Panem has a Latin etymology. The Hunger Games themselves are an allusion to the reality TV show Survivor. In the Hunger Games, the tributes often live off the bare minimum and nearly starve to death, just like on Survivor. They are forced to make alliances and then break them, just like on Survivor. They fight against nature and each other, just like on Survivor. The Hunger Games are just a more extreme version of Survivor, and it wouldn't take much to make them just the same. Analogy Ex. - Panem is to dictatorship as The United States is to democracy. -a comparison of similar objects to help clarify one of the objects The tributes for the Hunger Games are an allusion to the issue of child soldiers. Like in the Hunger Games, these children are taken from their parents at a very young age against their will. They are forced to fight, which often leads to their death. Like in Panem, the rest of the world knows it's not right, but they can't (or won't) do anything to change it. Both the child soldiers and the tributes for the Hunger Games are taken from their families, thrown into life-or-death situations, and can't do anything about it. The culture of the capitol is an allusion to the culture of Las Vegas and Hollywood. there is so much value placed on external appearance, and nobody cares about what's inside. They gamble on the tributes, and resort to crude forms of entertainment, something our own entertainment industry is not far off of today. The only things that matter to them are luxury, entertainment, and appearance. Connotation -the emotion or feeling associated with the word Ex. - When Katniss volunteers as tribute for Prim, she says "...in District 12, where the word "tribute" is pretty much synonymous with the word "corpse", volunteers are all but exctint." (pg. 22). This mean that in District 12, the word "tribute" has a very negative connotation. Dialect Ex. - When Katniss is in the woods with Gale, she says "...the Capitol accent is so affected, almost anything sounds funny in it." (pg. 8) -a way of speaking that is characteristic of a particular place, group of people, or time period. Ex. - When Gale is giving Katniss advice about her strategy for the Games, the author includes a brief story about how one year the arena didn't have any wood to burn and most of the players froze to death, which was thought to be very anticlimactic in the Capitol. The story serves two purposes. One is to prove that Gale's suggestions are valid, and the other is to show the cruelty and the absolute need for entertainment in the Capitol. Anecdote -a brief story used to illustrate or make a point Ex. - Prim's shirt coming untucked and forming a ducktail is a parallel episode, even though it is fairly small. This insignificant detail brings Katniss back into awareness both times it happens, and also tends to happen when Prim is in mortal danger. Her shirt came untucked during the reaping, when her name was called and she was walking up to the stage. This also happens in the third book, when she is in the Capitol and the rebels drop a bomb that kills her, along with many other children. Genre Ex. - The genre of The Hunger Games trilogy is science fiction, and the subcategory of dystopian fiction. -category in reading and/or writing Parallel Episode -when an episode in the plot repeats by Hallie Grant Bias Ex. - I think Katniss's impression of the Capitol citizens is somewhat biased, even though it is probably justified. Her judgement of them is that they are all heartless, Hunger-Games-obsessed freaks. While that may be true for some people, she has only met a very very small percentage of the people in the Capitol, so her judgement is somewhat biased. -a preference or inclination; a biased program may present only one side of an issue, leave out information, or downplay information in favor of one side Ex. - The etymology of the word "Panem" is Latin for bread. It comes from the Latin expression "panem et circenses" which means "bread and circuses". Etymology -the history of a word, including the country or culture from where it originated When Peeta's talents at camoflauge are revealed, it is a hint that he might have to use them during the Games. During training, Collins puts an emphasis on Peeta's skills at camoflague. This is a subtle hint that Peeta may have to use those skills in the arena. When Katniss says at the beginning of the book that she refused to let Prim take tesserae and that she has no chance of being picked, one slip in thousands, it is a prominent hint that she will be picked at the reaping. When Katniss and Rue make up the signal for being okay, and Katniss says she is afraid that she won't see Rue again after they blow up the Career's food, it is hinting that their fears might come true. The Career pack is an allusion to the "popular crowd". To get in, you have to be good-looking, athletic, have a good background, and be ruthless. It's hard to get in, and if you aid someone on the outside, you get stabbed in the back. Nobody is your true friend, and you always have to watch out. Flashback Ex. - Katniss has several flashbacks throughout the book. The author chooses to start the rising action very quickly and has a minimal exposition, so you have to learn the back story through Katniss's flashbacks. During one of her flashbacks, she tells Peeta's story when they call his name for tribute (pg. 26-32), then continues that flashback while she is in her room on the train going to the Capitol (pg. 49-53). -an interruption in the present action of the plot to show events that happened at an earlier time Ex. - When Katniss and Haymitch are discussing her presentation for the interview, Haymitch wants her to appear cheerful, and she says "'And you've given me so many reasons to be cheery.'" (pg. 117). We get verbal irony a lot from Katniss and Haymitch, as they are both sarcastic characters. Verbal Irony -when we say one thing but mean another; more commonly referred to as sarcasm Ex. - When Katniss continues to kiss Peeta in the cave, we know that she doesn't have as strong of feelings for him as she is leading the audience and, to some degree, Peeta to believe. Dramatic Irony -when we know something that a character from the work does not know Situational Irony -when reality contradicts what we expect Irony Ex. - Because Katniss is "the girl on fire", the Capitol viewers expect her to be able to withstand fire. So it is ironic when she receives such bad burns from the Gamemakers' fire. "The girl on fire" got burned. -a situation that turns out to be just the opposite of what we expect Ex. - Katniss is a dynamic character. After the Games, she has horrible nightmares, and only holds on to sanity by a thread. She also matures during the trilogy and learns to identify and express her feelings better. In the third book, Johanna Mason says, "...do you still feel like the girl who volunteered for your sister?" (Mockingjay, pg. 239). Katniss replies with "No." Dynamic Character -a character who changes during the novel; they learn a life lesson, mature, or make an important decision Onomatopoeia Ex. - Collins uses words like "clunk", "snap", and "rustle" to describe the sounds in the arena and make the fight seem more real to the reader. -the use of words whose sounds imitate or suggest their meaning Round Character Flat Character Ex. - Katniss is a round character. We know her thoughts, feelings, hopes, dreams, fears, goals, and past. Collins inserts Katniss's thoughts about everything into the book at every possible moment. -a character that is well-developed; often, but not always the protagonist; we know everything about them such as their fears, goals, background, hopes, dreams, etc. Ex. - Prim is a flat character. Even though she is somewhat central to the plot and Katniss loves her very much, we do not know her hopes, fears, background, or dreams. Theme Ex. - The theme of The Hunger Games trilogy is: Sometimes you have to take action and learn to control your own destiny. -the author's message to the reader which is also a life lesson; what we are meant to learn or realize after reading a piece of literature -a character that is not well-developed; often the character is only present to interact with the protagonist; we do knot know their background, hopes, dreams, fears, etc. Ex. - Suzanne Collins wrote the book with constant action, so there is always suspense. She also ends the books at extremely dramatic moments and leaves the readers with cliff-hangers. Suspense -the uncertainty or anxiety that a reader feels about what will happen next in a story, novel, or drama Static Character Ex. - A static character in The Hunger Games is Cinna. He was a genius at the beginning of the novel, never liked the Capitol, and always took chances with Katniss's costumes, knowing he could be killed if he went too far. He did not go through a big change during the novel(s). -a character who does not experience any growth throughout the course of the piece of literature. they do not grow, mature, make any important decisions, or change. Point of View -the vantage point from which the story is told First person - one of the characters, using the personal pronoun "I", tells the story. Ex. - Katniss narrates the whole story using the word "I". Indirect Characterization Ex. - Collins doesn't tell the readers what to think about Peeta. Instead, she tells stories about him through Katniss's memory and shows us his actions. Then she lets the readers make their own decision about the characters. Hence the "Team Peeta" and "Team Gale" groups that have formed. -the writer revelas the character's personality through dialogue, what others think of the character, through the character's appearance or clothing, through description of the character's thoughts and feelings, or through the character's behavior or actions Mood Ex. - The Hunger Games left me feeling paranoid. The way that Katniss was constantly watched, had to be constantly aware of someone trying to kill her, and how she had to constantly fake her feelings for Peeta made me feel like someone was going to jump out at me, and like there were cameras hidden in my walls. -the overall feeling a reader is left with when they finish the piece of literature Ex. - The jabberjays are an example of personification in The Hunger Games. The birds are given human capabilities (talking). Personification -gives nonhuman or inanimate things human qualities or capabilities Motif Ex. - One motif in The Hunger Games is the value of family. Katniss was willing to give up her life for her sister, and would do anything to protect her sister and her mother. Another motif, one that is more common recently, is the love triangle. Two guys who are both in love with a girl, and the girl has to choose (made popular by the Twilight series). -certain characteristics that are common in stories across cultures such as characters, images, or story lines Plot -the arrangement of events and actions within a story Chronological -events happen in the order they occured; beginning-middle-end Ex. - In The Hunger Games, all the events happen in a timely order, even though Katniss often stops for flashbacks, they are not regular and help explain the current event. Exposition Ex. - There is very little exposition in The Hunger Games, as the story basically jumps right in to the rising action. The exposition lasts until pg. 20. -the start of the story; introduction of characters and setting Ex. - Most of the book falls into the category of rising action. The rising action starts with the reaping of Prim as a tribute (pg. 20), and ends on page 342 with the start of the climax. Rising Action -the series of conflicts that lead to the climax Climax Ex. - The climax of The Hunger Games starts on pg. 342 when the Gamemakers announce that the previous rule change has been revoked and that only one tribute can win the Games. Even though there is no action in this scene, Katniss makes an extremely important decision that changes her life forever. It is, in my opinion, the most dramatic scene of the book (and movie). -the turning point in the story, either mentally or in action Falling Action -problems start to be resolved and the effects of the climax start to fall into place Ex. - The falling action in The Hunger Games begins on page 346 and ends on page 370. The main event in the falling action is Katniss and Peeta's interview with Caesar Flickerman. Resolution Ex. - Since there are two other books in the series after The Hunger Games, it does not have a complete resolution. However, the resolution starts when they leave the Capitol on the train and head back to District 12. -the conclusion; loose ends are tied together and things are resolved
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