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Aspects of Connected Speech: Rhythm
Transcript of Aspects of Connected Speech: Rhythm
English Phonetics and Phonology, a course book. Ch.14.
Prezy by Franklin de la Cruz It can be said that the word rhythm
stands for that regular timing of beats
we can recognize in songs Rhythm Theory 1: stress-timed rhythm theory
It states that the stressed syllables will tend to occur at relatively regular intervals of time:
'walk 'down the 'path to the 'end of the ca'nal 'walk 'down the 'path to the 'end of the ca 'nal 'walk 'down the 'path to the 'end of the ca 'nal same time from stress to stress Theory 2: Syllabic
The foot begings with a stressed syllable and includes all the following unstressed syllables up to (but not including) the next stressed syllable. 'walk 'down the 'path to the 'end of the ca 'nal 1 2 3 4 5 Theory 3:
Strong and weak patterns of stress
Above the level of the feet.
Some feet are stronger than others: s w s w twen ty pla ces BUT twen ty pla ces s w s w w s twen ty pla ces fur ther back w s w s w s s w s s w s w exercise 2 exercise 1b exercise 1 Assimilation In natural connected speech, sounds belonging to one word can produce changes in the sounds of neighboring words ---- c c---- f i word boundary This phenomenon is usual in rapid natural speech and it is a result of coarticulation (same organs).
Even though it affects vowel sounds as well, the effect is better appreciated among consonants. Among others, assimilation varies according to speaker rate and style. ---- c c---- f i initial consonant final consonant At least one feature of the final consonant is replaced by one(s) of the following initial consonant sound. REGRESSIVE ASSIMILATION that person
at three ---- c c---- PROGRESSIVE ASSIMILATION f i At least one feature of the initial consonant is replaced by one(s) of the following final consonant features. in the
read this Practise 1 Assimilation:
manner light blue
those years It is only found in the most rapid and casual speech
good night Assimilation of voice is only regressive and of one type: if the final consonat is lenis and the initial consonant is fortis, the final consonant will (probably) be voiceless:
He is Tim
leave Kate alone Elision Under certain circumstances sounds disappear.
We can say that the phoneme has
or that it has been deleted. Ø Examples Loss ow weak vowel after /p/ /t/ /k/
potato; tomato; canary; today Weak vowel + n, l or r becomes syllabic
tonight, police, correct Avoidance of complex consonant clusters
George the six's throne
acts ; looked back; scripts
Loss of final /v/ in "of" before consonants
"lots of them"
"waste of money" Finally,
Do you believe that contractions of grammatical forms should be regarded as phonological elision? Practise 2 (cont). Linking Even though in RP final /r/ is not pronunced, there are two instances in connected speech in which it occurs:
Linking "r" and Intrusive "r" Linking r
When a word's spelling suggests a final r, and a word beginning with a vowel follows, it is usual to pronounce that "r":
'here' but 'here are'
'four' but 'four eggs'
A way to link words when they end and begin with a vowel sound, is to add an "r" sound, even if it is not present in the words:
Australia all aut