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Biology of The Pearl

The Pearl

Michael O'Keefe

on 21 November 2011

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Transcript of Biology of The Pearl

Biology of the Pearl
Charles Darwin
Marine Biology
Charles Darwin's Life
Charles Darwin was a British Naturalist that was born on Febuary, 12, 1809 in the town of Shrewsbury, UK and died on April, 19 in the town of Downe,UK.
Charles Darwin had first had his doubts about the church's belief that all species were exactly how they were in the beginning of time while on a voyage in 1836.
On his voyage he had traveled through many terrorities where he found many indiginous species that were similiar to other species but not the same.
This led him to threorize the Theory of Evolution where animals evolve from other animals in their ancestry.
By the time Charles Darwin had gotten back home from his long voyage he was not wondering why these animals have evolved, but instead how they evolve.
One Scientist that inspired Charles Darwin was the Chemist Louis Pasteur who had a theory that all living organisms came from all other living organisms which led Charles Darwin to experiment on his theory.
His experiments led him to conclude that organisms evolved from other organisms which in turn made him to be noted as the father of the evolutionary theory.
First Subject: The Theory of Evolution
The theory of Evolution
Evolution by definition, is the gradual change of a group of organism's characteristics over time.
The changes of the characteristics occur from both natural selection of animals in the species and though random mutations in the genetic makeup of an animal
Natural selection is the process where the fittest animals of a species survive to therefore reproduce with other fit animals of the species.
The offspring of these animals will then also be healthy like its parents.
The evolutionary process though seemingy lengthy a species' characteristics and adaptations can change even after only a few generations.
Pearl Growth Process
Reaction to the Theory of Evolution
When Charles Darwin first published his theory for the world to see there were many People who thought that his theory was revolutionary, but also many others who did not.
Most people of the day believed that the world was only a few thousand years old which through Charles Darwin's theory was proven wrong and this went against people's beliefs which would anger them.
A group of people who were greatly angered by Charles Darwin's theory were the Catholics because his theory stated that the animals today were not how they were over a thousand years ago which goes against the creation stories in the Old Testament.
When the Roman Catholic Church heard news about this new theory they stated that it was blasphomy and that Charles Darwin was then seen as a heretic that stated false theories against God.
Through these many things happened to him he still had strong beliefs in his theory and he went on to publish the book The Origin of Species which was a book that explained the theory of Evolution in Depth.
Basic Information of Pearls
Mollusks are the only species of animal that makes Pearls.
Every type of mollusk makes pearls through the same process.
The Pearl is made of the same substance that the shell is made out of. (nacker)
Mollusks make the pearl as a defense mechanism to get rid of irritants such as a grain of sand or a parasite.
Pearls are very rare and only found in about 1 in every 1000 mollusks.
Steps in the making of a pearl
Step 1- A substance such as a grain of sand or a parasite enters the oyster which irritates it.
Step 2- The mollusks then engages in a defense mechanism where it wraps the irritant in a substance known as Nacker
Step 3- The Mollusk continues this process of wrapping the irritant in nacker until the mollusk is no longer irritated. This process can last up to over a few years.
Step 4- In this Final step the mollusk finishes wrapping the irritant in nacker and when this occurs the last layer of nacker that is applied is in turn the surface of the pearl which is hard and shiny.
Subject 2: What are Pearls
Subject 3: The Central Nervous System

The central nervous consist of the cerebral cortex, cerebellem, the motor controls, the spine, and the Brain stem.
Central Nervous System
Functions of the Central Nervous System
Cerebral Cortex- The part of your brain which Controls basic motor functions such as walking, running, and jumping.

Cerebellum- The cerebellum is the part of your brain which controls your coordination of movement through precise movementsand accurate timing which helps you to complete activities. The cerebellum also helps with learning and speaking language and also responding to fear and pleasure.

Motor Controls- A part of the brain which controls all motor functions and coordination such as hand-eye coordination and foot-eye coordination.

Spinal Chord- The spine connects the brain to the the rest of the body. The spine helps send messages through the body from different parts of the brain to tell the body certain motor functions or intellectual functions like speaking. The spine sends these messages through the neurons which are nerve cells.

Brain Stem- A part of the lower brain that attaches the brain to the spinal chord and also helps send messages throughout the body.
The Nervous System
The Setup of the Nervous System
The Cerebral Cortex- Located in the mid- center, top part of the brain.

The Cerebellum- Located in the back, left side of the brain.

Motor Controls- Located above the temple on both sides of the brain.

Spinal Chord- Located throughout the back of the body and connecting to the Brain stem.

Brain Stem- Located in the bottom of the brain and connecting to the top of the Spinal Chord.
Evolution of Man
Setup of the Brain
Connections to the Pearl
Evolutionary Connection- The theory of Evolution connects to the book The Pearl by John Steinbeck because in the story it shows many organisms such as humans and oysters which were animals that had evolved from ancestral organisms.

Pearl Connection- Pearls are connected to this story because in chapter two of the book you find out that Kino is actually not only a fisherman but a pearl seeker so when they go out in the boat to find pearls to pay for Coyotito's medical help they find a very large Pearl and this shows the possible ways that that Pearl could have been formed.

Nervous System Connection- The nervous system conects to the story because in chapter 3 it says that the village was like a nervous system sending messages throughout it and that these messages moved through it extremely quickly and that soon everyone would know.
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