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Transcript of Accountable Talk
What Is Intelligence?
What are your preconceptions about intelligence?
Are we born smart?
Can you get smarter?
How much does effort count?
Consider the following quote:
"Smart isn't something you are; it's something you get"
Thinking & Knowledge in the 21st Century
Thinking & Problem Solving are the new "basics" of 21st Century Learning
The idea that we can teach thinking without a solid foundation of knowledge must be abandoned
Similarly, the notion that we can teach without engaging students in thinking must also be abandoned
Knowledge & Thinking are intimately joined
This implies a curriculum organized around major concepts or "BIG Ideas" that students are expected to know deeply
Teaching must engage students in active reasoning about these concepts in every subject, at every grade level
Accountability to the Learning Community
students are seated so that they can see and hear one another
students build on one another's ideas
"I agree with....," "I disagree with....," "Why do you think that?" "I would like to add on to what _____ said...."
teacher uses a variety of
"Can everyone hear what _____ just said?" "Can anyone repeat what _____ said?" "Do you agree/disagree with that statement?" "Can anyone add on to what _____ just said?"
Accountability to Knowledge
students return to the text to provide evidence to support their thinking
students draw on knowledge already built by the classroom community
students ask questions: "What's your evidence for that?" "Where do you see that in the text?"
students challenge each other: "I disagree with you because here it says xyz...."
Principles of Learning & How Accountable Talk Fits In
Talking to others is fundamental to learning
not all talk sustains learning
Accountable Talk discourse is talk that sustains learning
Teachers in accountable talk classrooms intentionally establish and promote the norms and skills of accountable talk practices
There are 3 foundations of accountable talk practices: Accountability to Knowledge, Reasoning and the Learning Community
Intelligence is more than the ability to think quickly and stockpile bits of knowledge
Intelligence is a set of problem solving and reasoning capabilities
By calling on students to use the skills of intelligent thinking - educators can "teach" intelligence
Discourse is one of the primary ways in which people socialize and "learn" intelligence
Accountability to Reasoning
students take time to explain their reasoning,
students explain why they think something (meta-cognition)
students use evidence to support their position
students evaluate, check and question each other's assumptions and evidence
teachers ask questions
"What makes you think that?"
"What's the basis for the interpretation?"
"What's your reasoning?"
"How do you know?"
The Secret to Raising Smart Kids
Psychologist Dr. Carol Dweck has studied personality, motivation, and intelligence
For over a decade she has focused her studies on intelligence
she and her colleagues have shown that your mindset (whether or not you believe you can get smarter) is a critical component to success in school and beyond
What is I.R.E.?
I.R.E. (Initiation, Response, Evaluation) is the most common form of classroom discourse.
A typical classroom exchange between a teacher and a student in which the teacher asks a question, the student answers, and the teacher evaluates the answer and moves on.
Teacher: Jamal, how much is 8 times 8?
Teacher: Good. Anastasia, how much is 5 times 7?
research was conducted in the 1970's by Hugh Mehan
practices remain largely unchanged since that time
I.R.E. has been predominant in classroom discourse for the past century and a half
Initiation - Teacher
Response - Student
Evaluation - Teacher
= Teachers talk 2/3 of the time!
Fixed vs. Growth Mindset
Research shows that students who engage in academically productive talk...
show increases in cognitive development
have improved test scores in the year that they begin this kind of instruction and several years after
in one content area show improvement in that content area as well as in other subject areas
was originally built as a tool to predict who would not be able to learn in school
was originally built by one of the best intelligence theorists of the time for the Paris School Authority
was not built on the known theory of intelligence, but rather logic and common sense
the original IQ test is the quotient of mental age divided by chronological age multiplied by 100
was used to filter soldiers into officer school or the front line during WWI
1. When he lost his first national chess championship, Josh Waitzkin learned:
a) that he wasn’t smart.
b) that he should move on from chess and learn martial arts instead.
c) that he had to work hard.
d) that he should have slept better the night before.
2. When we tell children they are smart:
a) we raise their self-esteem.
b) we put them in the fixed mindset.
c) a and b.
3. Which of the following is true?
a) Our feedback for children should be process focused.
b) We should not praise our children.
c) We should tell our children that they are smart when they do something well.
d) a and c.
e) None of the above.
4. TRUE or FALSE: Having the right mindset is most important in children; once you are an adult, having the right mindset doesn’t matter as much.
5. TRUE or FALSE: Highly intelligent people do not have to work hard at anything.
6. TRUE or FALSE: Every person has a fixed amount of intelligence that cannot be changed.
7. TRUE or FALSE: Praising young children for their hard work is a good way to promote a growth mindset.
8. TRUE or FALSE: The brain is like a muscle; the more you use it, the stronger it gets.
How People Learn
The meaning of “knowing” has shifted from being able to remember and repeat information to being able to find and use it
Even seemingly talented individuals require a great deal of practice in order to develop their expertise.
How People Learn
Even seemingly talented individuals require a great deal of practice in order to develop their expertise
Best Golfer of All Time
"I was considered by all my masters and my father, a very ordinary boy, rather below the common standard of intellect."
Bill Gates' idea for DOS (a processor) was rejected by IBM
Fired from her job as a news reporter because she was "unfit" for t.v.
The first time he walked out on stage at a comedy club he looked out, froze and was eventually booed off the stage.