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General Psychology: Introduction

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Peter Louie Pinlac

on 6 August 2014

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Transcript of General Psychology: Introduction

PSYCHOLOGY
logos:
Science or Study
/psi/
soul or mind
PSYCHE:
Social Science
Natural Science
Social
Psychology
Educational
Psychology
Industrial -
Organizational
Psychology
Developmental
Psychology
Psycho-
pathology
Psycho-
pharmacology
Psycho-
neuroimmunology
Psycho-
neuroendo-
crinology
Neuro
psychology
Behavioral Neuroscience
memory
motivation
emotion
perception
personality
Wilhelm Wundt
December of 1879
PERSPECTIVES
1. Biological
2. Psychodynamic
Behavior is determined by intrapsychic forces that are unknown in nature. This means that the individual has no full awareness of these mental forces that are affecting his conscious behavior.
3. Behavioral
Motivations
Rewards
Punishment
Habit
4. Cognitive
internal mental processes, such as creativity, perception, thinking, problem solving, memory, and language.
5. Phenomenological Perspective
a person's experiences play a significant role in how he perceives himself and how he behaves
Behavior vs Attitude
Goals of
Psychology
as Science
1. Description
2. Understanding
3. Prediction
4. Control
An attitude is "a relatively enduring organization of beliefs, feelings, and behavioral tendencies towards socially significant objects, groups, events or symbols" (Hogg & Vaughan 2005, p. 150)

"..a psychological tendency that is expressed by evaluating a particular entity with some degree of favor or disfavor" (Eagly & Chaiken, 1993, p. 1)
Attitudes structure can be described in terms of three components.

Affective component:

this involves a person’s feelings / emotions about the attitude object. For example: “I am scared of spiders”.

Behavioral (or conative) component:

the way the attitude we have influences how we act or behave. For example: “I will avoid spiders and scream if I see one”.

Cognitive component:
this involves a person’s belief / knowledge about an attitude object. For example: “I believe spiders are dangerous”.
FUNCTIONS OF ATTITUDE
1. Knowledge
2. Ego-expressive
3. Adaptive
4. Ego-defensive
Methods and Techniques in Psychological Researches
1. Experimental Method
2. Quasi-experimental method
3. Correlational method
4. Naturalistic method
5. Case study method
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