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Assessment 2A: an online collaboration on the topic of Depression.

by Simone Leigh Natasha Nicholas, Emily Johns and Kim Denton


on 20 May 2013

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Transcript of Assessment 2A: an online collaboration on the topic of Depression.

Depression Assessment 2A: a collaboration of learning outcomes
by Simone Leigh, Kim Denton, Emily Johns and Natasha Nicholas Scope of Presentation What is Clinical Depression This presentation explores the topic of Depression.

We specifically investigated Clinical Depression, Bi-polar Depression (Manic Depression), Post-Partum Depression and Clinical Depression in remote and rural communities.

Using a combination of online sources and academic papers we researched the signs and symptoms, risk factors and causes, treatment pathways and organisations aimed at raising awareness and providing support; for each of these areas of depression.

This prezi, is a collaboration of our research on our assessment topic, its subtopics and themes. Depression may be described as feeling sad and unhappy... Many of us feel this way for a short period of time...
The Australian Psychological Society describes Depression
as "an emotional, physical and cognitive state that is intense, long lasting and has negative effects on a person's day to day life". (Australian Psychological Society, 2013) There are different types of Depression.
These include:

Clinical Depression
Bipolar Disorder
Post-Partum Depression Signs and Symptoms of Clinical Depression Feelings of helplessness and hopelessness
A loss of interest in daily activities
Appetite or weight changes
Sleep pattern changes
Anger or irritability
Loss of energy
Reckless behaviour
Concentration Problems
Harmful or Suicidal thoughts Bi-polar Disorder Bi-polar Disorder, is a form of Depression caused by a chemical imbalance in the brain.
This imbalance can cause severe mood changes from exaggerated highs (mania) to lows (depression).

There are two types of Bi-polar Disorder:
Bi-polar 1: this is the more severe type of Bi-polar where patients are plagued with life time episodes of mania, inter-dispersed with episodes of depression. Psychosis often accompanies this type of depression.

Bi-polar 2: This is the less severe of the two types where patients suffer episodes of depression plus a mild form of mania known as hyper-mania. Whilst Bi-polar may share some of the symptoms of Clinical Depression during depressive episodes, Bi-polar is characterised by its own set of symptoms:

Hyperactivity - extremely high energy levels
Positive, euphoric moods
Heightened creativity
Inappropriateness Post-partum Depression Post-partum depression is experienced between one month and one year after childbirth.

Post-partum Depression affects up to 1 in 7 women who give birth in Australia. (BeyondBlue,2013)

Men can also experience Post-partum Depression, especially if their partner is also experiencing it. Is it just the
"Baby Blues"? It is not uncommon for women to feel overwhelmed and teary the days following the birth.

Up to 80% of women who give birth in Australia experience the "baby blues". (Beyond Blue,2013) Signs and Symptoms of Post-partum Depression The signs and symptoms of Post-partum Depression are similar to those of Clinical Depression.
Post-partum Depression also has an additional risk profile which includes:
A stressful or unplanned pregnancy
A complicated delivery
Severe "Baby Blues" after birth
Difficulties with breastfeeding
Premature birth or separation from an unwell baby
Hormonal imbalances
Low self-esteem due to body changes through pregnancy The Edinburgh Post-natal Depression Scale (EPDS) The EDPS is a tool used by Healthcare Professionals to assist in the identification and diagnosis of Post-natal Depression.

The EDPS is a guide and not a definitive diagnostic tool and is used in conjunction with medical interviews and observations. Post-partum Psychosis Pregnancy and childbirth can trigger the more severe biological condition known as Post-partum Psychosis.

Post-partum Psychosis is rare but serious condition that often presents early in the post partum period. Causes, Risks and Triggers Factors that increase the likelihood of experiencing depression include:
existing mental health problems
family history of mental health problems
current drug or alcohol dependencies
current or past history of abuse
stressful and/or traumatic life event/s
lack of emotional and/or practical support
Financial strain
marital and relationship problems Depression In Rural Communities The National Rural Alliance stated that in 2009,a health survey by the Australian Bureau of Statistics, found that on average, the prevalence of mental illness in Australian cities was equivalent to levels in remote and rural regions of Australia.(National Rural Health Alliance 2009)

What was noted however, was that Australians residing in these remote and rural areas who suffered depression, faced greater challenges in having their conditioned identified and accessing medical professionals for appropriate treatment due to limited geographical access to health facilities and specialists.

In addition to the causes, risks and triggers that can contribute to all people experiencing depression, those living in remote and rural areas, particularly farming communities in Australia also face unique factors such as on-going drought, flooding, bush-fires and a range of natural disasters that have very direct and long lasting effects on livelihood and well-being. Treatment Pathways The Cause of Your Depression Can Determine The Type of Treatment Just as the causes, signs and symptoms can differ from person to person, treatment pathways may work differently from person to person.

Most commonly there are two approaches to treating depression:
Psychological Therapies
Pharmacological Treatment. Psychological Therapies Psychological Therapies,assist people with Depression to change their negative thought patterns so that they are better able to cope with the stresses and events that can occur at different stages of life.
These models of therapy may not only assist a patient in recovering from Depression, but can also prevent the Depression from re-occurring. Psychological Therapies Psychological Therapies Include:

Cognitive Behaviour Therapy (CBT)

Behaviour Therapy

Interpersonal Therapy (ITP) Our Research Group: Group 2
Simone Leigh (Nsw)
Emily Johns (Vic)
Kim Denton (QLD)
Natasha Nicholas (WA) Each of our team were responsible for the research of their own sub topics and themes within this topic. In severe cases of depression or with biological conditions, pharmacological treatment may be needed.
Medication can play an important role in stabilising severe conditions and will often be combined with psychological therapies.

Electroconvulsive Therapy is also an option in severe, biological depression. Support Organisations and Health Promotion Campaigns and Resources There are a variety of organisations that support people who suffer from depression. These organisations promote awareness; promote mental well-being and prevention, provide first step information about identifying signs and symptoms, overviews of treatment options and clear pathways of how to seek professional help.

These include:
Beyond Blue

The Black Dog Institute

Act Belong Commit

Post & Ante Natal Depression Association(PANDA)

Understanding Depression is an important step to overcoming and managing Depression. These organisations also utilise social media to help increase the reach and scope of their messages and services. Klein (2010) classes this websites as "e-interventions".

E-interventions are defined by Klein(2010) as:

"Mental and behavioural health promotion, prevention, treatment and management-orientated interventions that are delivered via the internet or other electronic devices with or without human support"
Depression is thought to be triggered by factors such as traumatic events, stressful circumstances such as on-going financial strain or marital problems, drug or alcohol abuse and life changes such as having a baby. Biological conditions such as Bi-polar are caused by chemical imbalances in the brain
Depression can affect people at different stages of their life with the symptoms of depression varying from person to person. Conclusion
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