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Copy of Satire and Gulliver's Travels
Transcript of Copy of Satire and Gulliver's Travels
Satire and Gulliver's Travels
A genre of literature, and sometimes graphic and performing arts, in which vices, follies, abuses, and shortcomings are held up to ridicule, with the intent of shaming individuals, and society itself, into improvement. Although satire is usually meant to be funny, its greater purpose is often constructive social criticism, using wit as a weapon.
Satire and irony in some cases have been regarded as the most effective source to understand a society.They provide the keenest insights into a group's collective psyche, reveal its deepest values and tastes, and the society's structures of power. For its nature and social role, Satire has enjoyed in many societies a special freedom license to mock prominent individuals and institutions. The satiric impulse, and its ritualized expressions, carry out the function of resolving social tension.
Social and psychological functions of a satire
Horatian vs Juvenalian
4 May 1699– 13 April 1702
The book begins with a short preamble in which Lemuel Gulliver, gives a brief outline of his life and history before his voyages. He enjoys travelling, although it is that love of travel that is his downfall.
During his first voyage, Gulliver is washed ashore after a shipwreck and finds himself a prisoner of a race of tiny people, less than 6 inches tall, who are inhabitants of the island country of Lilliput. After giving assurances of his good behaviour, he is given a residence in Lilliput and becomes a favorite of the court.
A feature of satire is strong irony or sarcasm, parody, exaggeration. Satire is nowadays found in many artistic forms of expression and in media.
The word satire comes from the Latin phrase lanx satura, which means "a full dish of various kinds of fruits."
Subsequent orthographic modifications obscured the Latin origin of the word satire: satura becomes satyra, and in England, by the 16th century, it was written 'satyre.’
The state of political satire in a given country reflects the state of civil liberties and human rights. Under totalitarian regimes any criticism of a political system including satire is suppressed. A typical example is the Soviet Union. While satire of everyday life in the USSR was allowed political satire existed in the form of anecdotes that made fun of Soviet political leaders, especially Brezhnev, famous for his narrow-mindness and love for awards and decorations.
•named for the Roman satirist Horace
•criticizes some social vice through gentle,
mild, and light-hearted humour
•directs wit, exaggeration, and self-deprecating humour toward folly, rather than evil
•Horatian satire's sympathetic tone is common in modern society.
•named after the Roman satirist Juvenal
•contemptuous and abrasive
•addresses social evil through scorn, outrage, and savage ridicule
•the form is often pessimistic, characterized by irony, sarcasm, moral indignation and personal invective, with less emphasis on humor
•Strongly polarized political satire is often Juvenalian.
Age of Enlightenment
An intellectual movement in the 17th and 18th century advocating rationality,
produced a great revival of satire in Britain.
Fuelled by the formalization of the Tory and Whig parties.
1714 - the Scriblerus Club -> Alexander Pope, Jonathan Swift, John Gay, John Arbuthnot,
Robert Harley, Thomas Parnell, and Henry St John, 1st Viscount Bolingbroke.
Martinus Scriblerus, "an invented learned fool... whose work they attributed all
that was tedious, narrow-minded, and pedantic in contemporary scholarship".
Jonathan Swift was one of the greatest of Anglo-Irish satirists,
and one of the first to practice modern journalistic satire.
Travels into Several Remote Nations of the World, in Four Parts. By Lemuel Gulliver, First a Surgeon, and then a Captain of Several Ships
better known as
A novel by Irish writer and clergyman Jonathan Swift, that is both a satire on human nature and a parody of the "travellers' tales" literary sub-genre. It is Swift's best known full-length work, and a classic of English literature. It was published in 1726.
The book became popular as soon as it was published. John Gay wrote a letter in 1726 to Swift that "It is universally read, from the cabinet council to the nursery." Since then, it has never been out of print.
Part I: A Voyage to Lilliput
From there, the book follows Gulliver's observations on the Court of Lilliput. Gulliver assists the Lilliputians to subdue their neighbours, the Blefuscudians, by stealing their fleet. However, he refuses to reduce the island nation of Blefuscu to a province of Lilliput, displeasing the King and the court. Gulliver is charged with treason for, among other "crimes", "making water" in the capital (even though he was putting out a fire and saving countless lives.) He is convicted and sentenced to be blinded, but with the assistance of a kind friend, he escapes to Blefuscu. Here he spots and retrieves an abandoned boat and sails out to be rescued by a passing ship, which safely takes him back home.
Part II: A Voyage to Brobdingnag
20 June 1702 – 3 June 1706
•The sailing ship Adventure is blown off course and moves to land for want of fresh water.
•Abandoned by his companions Gulliver is found by a farmer who is 72 feet tall.
•He brings Gulliver home and his daughter cares for Gulliver.
•The farmer treats him as a curiosity and exhibits him for money.
•Since Gulliver is too small to use their huge chairs, beds, knives and forks, the queen commissions a small house for him, a 'travelling box', so that he can be carried around in it.
•Between small adventures he discusses the state of Europe with the King, who is not happy with Gulliver's description of Europe, especially upon learning of the use of guns and cannons.
•On a trip to the seaside, his travelling box is seized by a giant eagle which drops Gulliver and his box into the sea, where he is picked up by some sailors, who return him to England.
Part III: A Voyage to Laputa, Balnibarbi, Luggnagg, Glubbdubdrib, and Japan
5 August 1706 – 16 April 1709
Part IV: A Voyage to the Country of the Houyhnhnms
7 September 1710 – 2 July 1715
Gulliver in discussion with Houyhnhnms
Swift crater, a crater on Mars's moon Deimos, is named after Jonathan Swift.
The term Lilliputian has entered many languages as an adjective meaning "small and delicate". There is even a brand of small cigar called Lilliput. The smallest light bulb fitting in the Edison screw series is called the "Lilliput Edison screw". In Dutch, the word Lilliputter is used for adults shorter than 1.30 meters. Another example is the term yahoo, which is often encountered as a synonym for thug.
In the discipline of computer architecture, the terms big-endian and little-endian are used to describe two possible ways of laying out bytes in memory. The terms derive from one of the satirical conflicts in the book, in which two religious sects of Lilliputians are divided between those who crack open their soft-boiled eggs from the little end, and those who use the big end.
Sequels and imitations
Soviet Ukrainian science fiction writer Vladimir Savchenko published Gulliver's Fifth Travel—The Travel of Lemuel Gulliver, First a Surgeon, and Then a Captain of Several Ships to the Land of Tikitaks, a sequel to the original series in which Gulliver's role as a surgeon is more apparent. Tikitaks are people who inject the juice of a unique fruit to make their skin transparent, as they consider people with regular opaque skin secretive and ugly.
Gulliver's Travels Beyond the Moon is a 1965Japanese animated film, portraying an elder Gulliver taking part in a space travel, joined by a boy, a crow, a talking toy soldier and a dog. The film, although being a children's production generally fascinated by the idea of space traveling, portrays an alien world where robots have taken power. Thus it continues in Swift's vein of critical approach on themes in current society.
Hanna-Barbera produced two adaptations of Gulliver's Travels, one was a animated TV series called The Adventures of Gulliver in 1968 and another was a 1979 animated television special titled Gulliver’s Travels.
• Philip K. Dick's short story "Prize Ship" (1954)
• Simon Hawke's The Time Wars Series
• The BBC Radio 4 comedy series Brian Gulliver's Travels by Bill Dare
• The animated movie Castle in the Sky, released by Studio Ghibli
• A 2012 series of advertisements for the Acura RDX
• Journey 2: The Mysterious Island,
• The film Dr. Strangelove
•Defoe, Daniel, The True-Born Englishman.
•Groening, Matthew ‘Matt’, The Simpsons.
•Kubrick, Stanley, Dr. Strangelove.
•Twain, Mark, Adventures of Huckleberry Finn.
•Ellis, Bret Easton, American Psycho.
•Heller, Joseph, Catch-22.
•Orwell, George, Nineteen Eighty-Four and Animal Farm.
•Swift, Jonathan, A Modest Proposal.
• The band Soufferance based and themed their 2010 album on the book, as "Travels Into Several Remote Nations of the Mind".
• In 1728 the Baroque composer Georg Philipp Telemann composed a 5-movement suite for two violins based on Swift's book. Telemann's piece is commonly known as Gulliver's Travels, and depicts the Lilliputians and the Brobdingnagians particularly vividly through rhythms and tempos. The piece is part of Telemann's Der getreue Musik-meister (The Steadfast Music Teacher).
Gulliver's Travels (1939): Max Fleischer's animated feature-length classic of Gulliver's adventures in Lilliput. This was the first full-length animated cartoon after Disney's Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs, and was intended mostly for children.
The Three Worlds of Gulliver (1960): a loose adaptation starring Kerwin Matthews and featuring stop motion effects by Ray Harryhausen.
Case for a Rookie Hangman (1970): A satirical movie by the Czech Pavel Juráek, based upon the third book, depicting indirectly the Communist Czechoslovakia, shelved soon after its release.
Gulliver's Travels (1977): Part live-action and part-animated. Stars Richard Harris.
Gulliver's Travels (1996): Live-action, 2 part, TV miniseries with special effects starring Ted Danson and Mary Steenburgen, also featuring a variety of film stars in cameo roles. Of all film versions, this one is the most faithful to the novel, although it still makes significant changes.
Crayola Kids Adventures: Tales of Gulliver's Travels (1997): Live-action Direct-to-video film starring children with Adam Wylie as Gulliver.
Jajantaram Mamantaram (2003): Live-action Indian children's film, starring Javed Jaffrey.
Gulliver's Travels (2010): Modernized, Live-action version of Gulliver's adventures in Lilliput, starring Jack Black, also featuring Billy Connolly, James Corden, Amanda Peet, Chris O'Dowd, Catherine Tate, Jason Segel, Emily Blunt and Olly Alexander.
- Gulliver's ship attacked by pirates
- Rescued by the flying island of Laputa
a kingdom devoted to the arts of music
a custom of throwing rocks down at rebellious cities on the ground
the Grand Academy of Lagado
- Taken to Balnibarbi to await a trader who can take him on to Japan.
- Side-trip to the island of Glubbdubdrib
-Gulliver returns home, determined to stay there for the rest of his days.