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05 New Nation

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Thaddeus Schwartz

on 5 November 2013

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Transcript of 05 New Nation

A New Nation
Something New
Political Heritage
The Articles
Articles of Confederation
English Bill of Rights
Mayflower Compact
Connecticut Constitution
Virginia Statute for Religious Freedom
(1215) a charter of liberties agreed to by King John of England, it made the king obey the same laws as citizens
(1215) carta de libertades, firmada por el rey Juan de Inglaterra, que establecía que el rey debía obedecer las mismas leyes que el resto de los ciudadanos
Magna Carta
(1620) a document written by the Pilgrims establishing themselves as a political society and setting guidelines for self-government
(1620) documento redactado por los peregrinos en el que se constituían en una sociedad política y establecían los principios para gobernarse a sí mismos

Declaración de Derechos inglesa
(1689) cambio del poder político de la monarquía británica al Parlamento inglés
(1689) a shift of political power from the British monarchy to Parliament
(1639) English Colonies first written constitution
(1786) a document that gave people in Virginia freedom of worship and prohibited tax money from being used to fund churches
conjunto de principios básicos que determina los poderes y las obligaciones de un gobierno
a set of basic principles that determines the powers and duties of a government
(1786) documento que reconocía a los habitantes de Virginia la libertad de culto y prohibía utilizar el dinero procedente de impuestos para financiar iglesias

Artículos de la Confederación
(1777) documento que creó el primer gobierno central en Estados Unidos; fue reemplazado por la Constitución en 1789
(1777) the document that created the first central government for the United States; was replaced by the Constitution in 1789
U.S. Constitution
Systems of Governments
a union comprising of partially self-governing states united by a central government.
an association of sovereign states usually created by a treaty, but often adopting a common constitution later
Strong Central Govt
Partially Self-Governing States
Membership is NOT optional
Weak Central Govt
Sovereign States
Membership IS optional
Ancient Greece
(469-322 BCE)
Roman Republic
(508 BCE - 500 CE)
Two Treatise on Government
(1689) Written by John Locke. The first treatise refuted the divine right of kings. The second treatise, included ideas like the sovereignty of the people, the necessity of restraints on the
the executive and legislative arms of government, and the social contract between the people and their government.
All powers belongs to the national government. States may be given power but it may be taken away.
Unitary System
Single Unit
Supreme Central Govt
No Self-Governing States
No membership - ONE ENTITY
After Declaring
from Britain we needed to form a government of our own...
Agreed to by the Continental
Congress November 15, 1777
and in effect after ratification by
Maryland, March 1,1781, the
Articles of Confederation served as a bridge between the initial government by the Continental Congress of the Revolutionary period and the federal government provided under the Constitution for the United States in effect March 4, 1789
After their experience with England, citizens feared a strong central government so they created a confederacy where most of the power remained with the states.
This would have long term effects on the New Nation.
Articles of Confederation
Postal System
Land Ordinance 1787
Northwest Territory 1787
Successfully governed us through the Revolution
created to maintain and improve communications throughout the states
legislation authorizing division and sale of public lands in the western region of the country to raise money for war debts.
legislation establishing a system for the admitting new states
Too much power to the states!!
Laws required 9/13 majority to pass
Only one branch of Government
No Executive
No National Courts
No Power to...
Collect Taxes
Regulate Trade
Raise an Army
Currency Issues
Every state had its own currency
Decisions were difficult...
Amendments required unanimous vote
(Law enforcement)
(Law interpretation)
a) No power to tax
b) Only one branch of govt
c) Too much power givento the states
d) 9/13 majority required for laws
What was the primary weakness of the Articles?
a) Confederation Land Rush
b) Land Ordinance 1787
c) Ohio Valley Land Grant
d) Northwest Territory Ordinance
What legislation sold western lands to pay for war debts?
a) Confederate System
b) Federal System
c) Unitary System
What system of government is typically a union of states with a strong central government and partially self-governing states?
A Convention in Philadelphia 6:28
Shay's Rebellion 14:41
British Challenges
Britain closed many of its ports in the West Indies to American ships creating financial losses for American merchants.
Britain was slow to withdraw from the Great Lakes area and the US under the Articles could not raise an army to force them.
Military Issues
Closed Ports
Britain charged high tariffs on goods coming from the United States… while British goods flowed freely into the U.S. creating a trade imbalance hurting
U.S. businesses. The Confederation
Congress had no power to establish tariffs
or fix the problem. States followed
their own trade interests at the expense
of other states and the Confederacy.
Trade Imbalance
Spanish Challenges
When Spain closed the lower Mississippi River to U.S. shipping, the Articles made it difficult for the new American government to negotiate... so Spain left the negotiations, creating additional financial strains on American trade.
Foreign Negotiations
States started
printing large
amounts of their
own money to
pay war debts…
the result was

The Confederate Congress had no power to stop the states from printing the money.
Economic Challenges & Terms
A steep drop in economic
activity combined with rising
The exchange of goods
and services across
international borders or
Commercial trade,
business, movement
of goods or money,
or transportation
from one state to
another, regulated
by the federal
according to powers spelled
out in Article I of the Constitution.
Inflation: increased prices for goods and services combined with the reduced value of money.
Interstate Commerce
International Trade
Economic Depression
•Shay’s Rebellion (1786–-87)
an uprising of Massachusetts’s farmers,
led by Daniel Shays, to protest high
taxes being raised to pay war debts.
The high taxes resulted in heavy debt and farm foreclosures. The uprising showed weakness of Confederate Congress and inability of the national government to put down rebellions and protect its people.
A Call for change
Constitutional Convention
May 1787, d
elegates met in Philadelphia’s Independence Hall to improve the Articles of Confederation. However, they scrap the Articles and create the U.S. Constitution.
of Powers
Slavery Issue
Checks & Balances
Great Compromise - (Conneticut Compromise) - combined the Virginia Plan and New Jersey Plan shown below to create a Legislature that was based both on population and equality among states.
The smaller states came up with a plan to stop the larger states from getting too much power. New Jersey delegate William Paterson presented the small-state or New Jersey Plan, which called for a unicameral, or one-house, legislature. The plan gave each state an equal number of votes, thus an equal voice, in the federal government.
After the delegates had met for four days, Edmund Randolph of Virginia presented the Virginia Plan. He proposed a new federal constitution that would give sovereignty, or supreme power, to the central government. The legislature would be bicameralmade
and chosen on the basis of state populations.
made up of two houses, or groups of representatives
After a month of debate, the delegates were unable to agree on how states should be represented. The convention reached a deadlock... Finally, Roger Sherman of Connecticut proposed a compromise plan. The legislative branch would have two houses. Each state, regardless of its size, would have two representatives in the Senate, or upper house. This would give each state an equal voice, pleasing the smaller states. In the House of Representatives, or lower house, the number of representatives for each state would be determined by the state’s population. This pleased the larger states. The agreement to create a two-house legislature became known as the Great Compromise.
Southern delegates wanted slaves to be counted as part of their state populations so they would have more representatives, and more power, in Congress.

Northerners disagreed. They wanted the number of slaves to determine taxes but not representation. To resolve this problem they agreed to the...
Three-Fifths Compromise.
Under this agreement only three-fifths of a state's slave population would count when determining representation.
Legislative - makes laws
House of Representatives (population based) / Senate (2 per state)
Executive - carries out or executes the laws President and Departments
Judicial - courts that interpret, punish, and settle disputes Supreme court appointed for life (least democratic)
Separation of Powers insures powers to govern are divided into separate branches and not held by one part of the government.
Checks and Balances - a system established by the Constitution that prevents any branch of government from becoming too powerful.
Federalist Government
The delegates wanted to balance the power of the central government with the powers of the states. Therefore, the delegates created federalism.

Federalism is the sharing of power between a central government and the states that make up a country. Under the previous confederal system, states were loosely joined together without a strong central government.

Under the Constitution, each state must obey the authority of the federal, or national, government. States have control over government functions not specifically assigned to the federal government. This includes control of local government, education, the chartering of corporations, and the supervision of religious bodies. States also have the power to create and oversee civil and criminal law. States, however, must protect the welfare of their citizens.
(Madison, Washington, Franklin, Hamilton, Jay)
Federalist - supported ratification of the Constitution
Federalist Papers essays supporting the Constitution written anonymously by Hamilton, Madison, and Jay
Several states ratified the Constitution only after they were promised that a bill protecting individual rights would be added to it. Many Antifederalists did not think that the Constitution would protect personal freedoms.
(George Mason)
Antifederalists - people who opposed ratification of the Constitution
Amendment - official change, correction, or addition to a law or constitution
Bill of Rights - the first 10 amendments to the Constitution; ratified in 1791
Rule by one...
Rule by few...
Rule by citizens...
Types of Governments
Levels of Government
Declaration of Independence 5:55
Too Late to Apologize 3:22
A Blueprint for a New Nation 3:19
Full transcript