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Schumann's Acculturation Model & Cortes' Contextual Interaction Model
Transcript of Schumann's Acculturation Model & Cortes' Contextual Interaction Model
Cortes' Contextual Interaction Model Done by: Maryam Saeed
ID: H00153141 What I want to learn
1. What is.........
Schumann's Acculturation Model?
Cortes' Contextual Interaction Model?
2. How I can apply these models in my classroom?
3. Is Schumann's Acculturation Model linked to Krashen’s model? And how?
4. Are there parts in Schumann's Acculturation Model?
5. Did Krashen criticize Schumann's Acculturation Model? What I learned
. Schumann focuses on sociacultural factors not internal cognitive processing.
•Small social distance = language learning situation
•Great social distance = no language learning
•Schumann identified two factors to predict the degree of language acquisition which are social distance and psychological distance.
•Schumann believes that social factors might have less influence on SLA than psychological factors do. •Social distance:
1.Social dominance: when the two groups have equal power in society = small social distance.
2.Integration pattern: greater integration between the two groups = small social distance.
3.Enclosure: one group is self-sufficient (does not need to interact with native speakers) = greater social distance.
4.Cohesiveness: when learners are strongly connected with each other, the social distance will be great.
5.Size: small immigrants group = small social distance.
6.Cultural congruence: the two groups are similar culturally = small social distance.
7.Attitude: immigrants has a positive attitude towards the target-language culture = small social distance.
8.Intended length of residence: staying for a long time = small social distance. My learning plan
1. Search for information in books and websites about Schumann's Acculturation Model and Cortes' Contextual Interaction Model.
2.Read about and understand Cortes' Contextual Interaction Model.
3.Write what I learned about Cortes' Contextual Interaction Model.
4.Read about and understand Schumann's Acculturation Model.
5.Write what l learned about Schumann's Acculturation Model.
6.Write some implication of these two models in my classroom.
7.Write reflection. What I learned •It shows how immigrants and their children try to adapt themselves to a new language and setting.
•Language learning is a part of the process of acculturation.
•Acculturation model is the main cause of SLA, but it is not a direct cause.
•Two types of acculturation:
First type: learners are integrated socially and psychologically to the target group.
Second type :all the features of the first type and learner group see TL group as a reference to a life style and values that the learner desire to adopt. •Psychological distance:
1. Motivation: immigrants are high motivation to learn the TL = small psychological distance.
2. Attitude: immigrants have positive attitude towards the native speakers’ language and culture.
3. Language shock: when learners’ get confuse when using the target language (TL) (when there is no similarities between the 1L and 2L. Acculturation and assimilation:
when learners gain a new culture (new identity) without giving a part of their primary culture (their own identity).
when learners lose their primary culture (their own identity) and become a part of the TL culture. Four stages in the TL natural environment (Brown):
Euphoria: when learners get excited about the new surroundings.
Culture shock: when learners get shock of the TL and this might cause stress, anxiety and fear which may cause rejecting learning the second language.
Culture stress: when learners see the differences in thinking.
Full recovery: when learners adapt the new culture and develop new identity. Strengths of Schumann’s model :
1• It does not neglect the role of individuals in language learning process.
2• It applies SLA in just natural situations.
3• It takes place over time and learners’ social and psychological distance might change during the time she or he spend in TL environment.
4• It helps us understand why some people succeed or fail in learning a new language via using the concepts of social and psychological distance. But because Schumann did not take cognitive and language processing in consideration, the help is limited. Criticism in Schumann’s model:
1• Both Krashen and Schumann worked on explain the notion of SLA. But Krashen focused on internal factors whereas Schumann had focused on external factors.
2• Schumann did not focus on cognitive and linguistic domain.
3• Schumann failed in considering his social factors as a direct effect on SLA, but the truth is they are indirect factors.
4• Schumann did not talk about how which type of instructions teachers do need to use in their classrooms to promote language acquisition.
5• Krashen said that his theory is wider in explaining acquisition than Schumann’s model. In particular, the comprehensible input hypothesis explained SLA in situation that acculturation does not go for . Pedagogic implication:
1. Acculturation model provides explicit (direct) teaching.
2. It includes discipline-oriented approach to L2 academic writing.
3. Educators need to know and understand the social and culture factors in order to develop curricula that address realities.
4. Teachers need to learn about their learners’ identities and bring them to the classroom activities. Acculturation Extended Model (AEM)
* Acculturation Extended Model (AEM) had developed by Anderson via providing cognitive dimension.
*AEM has two main processes:
Nativization: when learners modify the input of the L2 to link it with the knowledge of the L1.
Denativisation: when learners modify her/his internalized knowledge to accommodate the input of the 2L. Abbreviations:
• TL : target language
• SLA : second language acquisition
• L1 : first language
• L2 : second language Processing 1 Processing 2 Processing 3 Reflection:
In this week it was easy for me to make my notebook because I get used to it. In this week I faced some issues such as understanding the different between assimilation and acculturation, but with a little help from my friends, I got it. Another issue is that memorizing the eight factors of the social distance, so I tried to visualize some of them. Furthermore, having discussion with my classmates helped me a lot to get deep understanding about the two models especially Schumann’s model. Resources that I used Cortes' Contextual Interaction Model Implication in my classroom:
•I will need to create a classroom environment that encourage interacting between learner group and TL group.
•Via inviting learners to share information about their cultures, I can make learners feel that their culture is appreciated and respected.
•I can make both groups which are learner group and TL group look closer together by showing some similarities between the two cultures.
•I can assign them with a task that required them to interact with the TL group (e.g. real-life situations), so their self-sufficient is low and that might lead to low enclosure and small social distance.
•If the learner group is big in my classroom, I can ask each of them to sit in a different group especially in group activities. Real life situation (social and psychological distance):
When I traveled to Australia I noticed that the social distance was great. For instance, some factors cause great social distance such as cohesiveness, size, cultural congruence and intended length of residence. But other factors had made the social distance become small like social dominance, attitude and enclosure. Additionally, there was a psychological factor that made the psychological distance small which is motivation.