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United States Presidents

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James Musni

on 9 April 2015

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Transcript of United States Presidents

United States Presidents
By: James Musni
George Washington
(1789-1797)
Political Party: None
Vice President:
John Adams
New States:
Delaware
Pennsylvania
New Jersey
Georgia
Connecticut
Massachusetts
Maryland
South Carolina
Domestic Affairs
Alexander Hamilton's Financial Program
Foreign Policy
Neutrality with belligerent nations
Fun Facts
Washington was originally offered to be the king or the dictator of the newly formed United States
President #1
New Hampshire
Virginia
New York
North Carolina
Rhode Island
Vermont
Kentucky
Tennessee
The Bill of Rights is introduced in 1791
Hamilton arranges the first Bank of the U.S in 1791
Mint Act of 1792 allowed for the coining of the national currency
Naturalization Act of 1795 allows for citizenship after 5 years of residence
Fugitive Slave Act allows for the return of slaves (1793)
The Jay Treaty of 1794 regulates trade with Britain
1794 Neutrality Act shows American intentions to stay neutral
Pinkney Treaty creates a trading relationship with Spain
His farewell address is read every year in both the House and the Senate
John Adams
(1797-1801)
Vice President:
Thomas Jefferson
New States:
None
Domestic Affairs
Department of the Navy is created to prevent pirating
Foreign Policy
Adams calls for the formation of the United States Navy and a militia that can be called up by the President at any time
Fun Facts
Washington DC became the official capital of the nation during John Adam's Presidency
Political Party: Federalist
1801 Judiciary Act allowed for the creaton of 16 circuit courts with judges selected by President Adams
Naturalization act extended residency requirement from five years to fourteen years before citizenship in 1798
The Alien and Sedition Acts called for the imprisonment of enemy "aliens"
Government places large taxes on Stamps with Stamp Act
XYZ affair of 1797- 3 U.S. embassadors to France wereribed to give a $10 million loan, causing sever public outrage
Quasi-War with France caused formation of Navy, Marines; along with theal release from the Revolutionary War alliance
The White House is built to house the President
John Adams was the first one-term president
Thomas Jefferson
(1801-1809)
Political Party:
Democratic Republican
Vice President
Aaron Burr
New States
Ohio
Domestic Affairs
Madison V. Marbury in 1803 proclaims a midnight judge commission withholding by the Senate unconstitutional, setting Judicial precident
Foreign Policy
Fights with Barbary pirates lead to a mini-war with Northrn Africa, resulting in America's payment of a small tribute after a failed covert coup attempt
Fun Facts
Gunpowder plant started to block British monopoly on the necessary supply
President #2
President #3
George Clinton
Louisiana Purchase acquired in 1803
Lewis and Clark expedition to explore the new territory acquired in the Louisiana Purchase
12th Amendment redefines the election process
Ban on importation of slaves begins in 1808
Napoleon's war between England and France lead to increased exports to warring nations, jump-starting the economy
Non-Intercourse Act allows for trade with all other nations, editing the Embargo Act that had preceded it
The first Riverboat was used during Jefferson's Presidency
Anthracite coal burnt for the first time, providing a new fuel source
James Madison
(1809-1817)
Political Party:
Democratic Republican
Vice Presidents
George Clinton
New States
Louisiana
Domestic Affairs
Supreme Court rules Georgia law unconstitutional in 1810, becoming the first instance of judiciary involvement in the dispersal of state law
Foreign Policy
War of 1812 begins, commonly known as the second war of American Independence
Fun Facts
James Madison used to be considered one of the lower-class presidents, but recent study has put him on parallel with Lincoln's war-time management
President #4
Elbridge Gerry
Indiana
Further battles with Indians call American Expansion into question
Louisiana becomes the 18th state in 1812
Creek War begins after brutal fighting at Fort Mims
Several states gather to protest the War of 1812, involving the states' rights
1816 Charter creates the Second Bank of the United States
Treaty of Ghent ends fighting, giving America ceded lands, but no neutrality causes
British impressments of ships greatly decreases
Ended his presidency with more popularity than at his inauguration
Madison ended up with victories on almost every political front
James Monroe
(1817-1825)
Political Party:
Democratic Republican
Vice President
Daniel D. Tompkins
New States
Mississippi
Domestic Affairs
"Era of Good Feelings" emerges from presidential tour of nation, booming economy
Foreign Policy
Rush-Bagot Treaty leads to limitations on armed ships in Great Lakes, prodution of naval armaments
Fun Facts
James Monroe's decendents were from Scottland
President #5
Illinois
Alabama
Maine
Missouri
In 1819, the economy took a large hit after over-minting and began to fail, taking state banks and small business with it
Government can not interfere with independent organizations under Dartmouth College v. Woodwar
Missouri Compromise tries to maintain the balance between slave states and non-slave states
Tariff Act of 1824 is passed
49th parallel decided as boundary between Canada and the United States
Adams-Onis treaty of 1819 acquires Spanish territory south of the nation for debt nullification
Monroe Doctrine is issued, stating that European powers no longer had jurisdiction in colonization, interference with settlements in the Western Hemisphere
Last "Founding Father" president
John Quincy Adams
(1825-1829)
Political Party: Federalist, Democratic-Republican, Whig
Vice President
New States
None
Domestic Affairs
Tariff of Abominations plan by Adams's opponents designed to make the President look anti-protectionist with a veto, actually fails, as the extremely high tariffs would help the New England economy greatly, allowing for the bill's passage
Foreign Affairs
None
Fun Facts
American Dictionary of the English Language is published by Noah Webster during Adams's presidency
President #6
John C. Calhoun
Anti-Tariff protests lead to a call for greater tariffs after Calhoun casts deciding vote in the House destroying old bill
Eire canal completed
Andrew Jackson
(1829-1837)
Political Party: Democratic
Vice Presidents
John Calhoun
New States
Arkansas
Domestic Affairs
Highway contruction bill proposed by congress is vetoed for benefiting only Kentucky
Foreign Policy
The Alamo is taken by MExican forces, who outnumbered them 5,000 to 187
Fun Facts
The Liberator is first published
President #7
Martin Van Buren
Michigan
Jackson is first president to openly approve and support the removal of Indians from their homeland, including ignoring a judicial accord
Jackson laughed at SC's attempt at nullifying a federal tariff act
Jackson vetoes bill to recreate the Second Bank of the US
Payment for federal lands is restricted to Land Scrip or specie
The New York Herald is created in 1835
In 1835, the Colt 6-shooter handgun was invented
Martin Van Buren
(1837-1841)
Political Party:
Richard M. Johnson
Vice Presidents
Richard M. Johnson
New States
None
Domestic Affairs
Financial Panic spurs in 1837 from extensive borrowing, cotton and wheat failure, requests for payment freom short-term loans, and coin payment option for land purchase
Foreign Affairs
After attempts at assisting canadian rebellion, Van Buren calls for neutrality
Fun Facts
Goodyear perfects rubber to make it resistant to hardewning in cold and becoming sticky in heat
President #8
Riots start in New York over flour prices, depression
Trail of Tears begins as Van Buren continues with Jackson's removal policy
Maine and New Brunswick lumberjacks fight over forest rights in Aroostook War
William Henry Harrison
(1841)
Political Party:
Whig
Vice President
John Tyler
New States
None
Domestic Affairs
None
Foreign Policy
None
Fun Facts
First President to die in office
President #9
John Tyler
(1841-1845)
Vice President
None
Domestic Policy
Tyler opposes standing army, tariffs, and voting rights for non-property holders
Foreign Policy
New States
Florida
Fun Facts
First President to have veto overridden by Congress
President #10
Political Party: Democratic and Whig
Tyler vetoes reform of a national bank
Webster-Ashburton Treaty puts and end to the Aroostook war between Canada and the United States
Tyler worked to annex Texas in his re-election, but Polk's agreement blunted the issue
Backed out of the election, fearing a split ticket would push clay to the presidency
James K. Polk
(1845-1849)
Political Party: Democratic
Vice Presidents
George M. Dallas
New States
Texas
Iowa
Wisconsin
Domestic Affairs
Wilmot Proviso proposes the abolition of slavery in all lands acquired from Mexico
Foreign Policy
Polk sends John Slidell to negotiate with Mexico for northern lands; refusal to meet leads to proposed invasion of Mexico
Fun Facts
Sewing Machine invented by Howe Steam Cylinder Press allows for easier mining
Independent Federal Treasury is created in 1846
The Walker Tariff of 1846 lowered tariffs across the board, with tea and coffee having no tariffs
Mexican forces attackAmericans before war is declared
Treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo in 1848 ends Mexican-American war, US gains lands
Zachary Taylor
(1849-1850)
Political Party:
Whig
Vice Presidents
Millard Fillmore
New States
None
Domestic Affairs
Opposed strong national bank, slavery in new states without cotton or sugar, high tariffs, secession
Foreign Policy
None
Fun Facts
First time nation voted on same day
President #11
President #12
Avoided slavery debate with policy of letting the states decide what they wanted in terms of freedom or slavery
No functional coalition formed
President dies of cholera in 1850
Millard Fillmore
(1850-1853)
Political Party: Whig
Vice President
None
New States
California
Domestic Affair
Fillmore signs the Great Compromise of 1850 into law
Foreign Policy
Clayton-Bulwer Treaty stated that both the United States and England would be protective of Central America and would remain neutral in Panama
Fun Facts
Uncle Tom's Cabin is published by Harriet Beecher Stowe in 1852
California becomes a free state
Fugitive Slave Law passed
Franklin Pierce
(1853-1857)
Political Party:
Democratic
Vice President
William R. King
New States
None
Domestic Affair
Gadsen Purchase acquired in 1853 Kansas-Nebraska Act is passed in 1854, allowing for a choice between free or slave
Foreign Policy
Admiral Matthew Perry heads to Japan to open it trade in Tokyo
Fun Facts

Fought in the Mexican War
President #13
President #14
Missouri Compromise is repealed as "unconstitutional"
Fighting breaks out in Kansas over slave status
American Merchant Ship is captured in Havana by Spanish
James Buchanan
(1857-1861)
Political Party:
Democratic
Vice President
John C. Breckinridge
New States
Minnesota
Oregon
Kansas
Domestic Affairs
Dred Scott decision ruled that slaves were not people, and that the Missouri Compromise was unconstitutional
Foreign Policy
Buchanan led nation to Civil War with his unresponsiveness
Fun Facts
Harper's weekly begins publication
Drake drills first oil well
President #15
1857 financial panic caused widespread economic turmoil
South Carolina Secedes from the Union
Confederate States of America founded under the Confedereate Constitution
Abraham Lincoln
(1861-1865)
Political Party: Republican
Vice President
Hannibal
Hamlin
New States
West Virginia
Nevada
Domestic Affairs
After Fort Sumter was bombarded, Lincoln called for 75,000 volunteers to help defend
Foreign Policy
None
Fun Facts
He was the tallest president of the United States
Andrew Johnson
President #16
Draft Riots begin in New York in 1863
Emancipation Proclimation declares all slaves in southern states to be "free" from Southernslave owners - this made the war a war of morals and slavery, not just states' rights
Freedmen's Bureau created to try to establish jobs, education, health care, welfare, and food, for all of the newly freed slaves
Andrew Johnson
(1865-1869)
Political Party: Democratic
Vice Presidents
None
New States
Nebraska
Domestic Affairs
Continued Lincoln's reconstruction form at
Foreign Policy
None
Fun Facts
First Vice-President to succeed after an assassination
President #17
Freedmen's Bureau Act and Civil Rights act passed under Republicans
Tenure of Office Act limits President's appointing powers
Black men finally got the right to vote
Ulysses S. Grant
(1869-1877)
Political Party:
Republican
Vice President
Horatio Seymour
and
Horace Greely
New States
Colorado
Domestic Affairs
Prevented gold cornering of gould and Fisk by offering slaes to public on "Black Friday"
Credit Mobilier holding Company scandal rocks presidency with misappropriated grants going towards individuals
Foreign Policy
International Arbitration charge panel awards the United States $15.5 million from England in Geneva
Fun Facts
Knights of Labor founded in 1869
President #18
Rutherford B. Hayes
(1887-1881)
Political Party: Republican
Vice Presidents
William A. Wheeler
New States
None
Domestic Policy
Hayes removes federal troops from the South as a compromise for election
Munn v. illinois declares state regulation of trade rates is allowed
Foreign Policy
None
Fun Facts
Photograph is patented by Thomas Edison in 1877
Incandescewnt lamp is invented by Edison in 1877
President #19
James Garfield
(1881)
Political Party:
Republican
Vice President
Chester A. Arthur
New States
None
Domestic Affairs
Garfield was assassinated by gunshot from an unhappy member of his party, after not being appointed to an office - metal detector attempt failed
Foreign Affair
None
Fun Facts
Garfield was a preacher
President #20
Patronage in appointing positions of power was the major issue
Chester A. Arthur
(1881-1885)
Political Party: Republican
Vice Presidents
None
New States
None
Domestic Affair
Rivers and Harbors Bill is passed over Arthur'sveto as a pork barrel bill - surplus used on ribers and harbors to gain ecologists' support
Foreign Affair
The Chinese Exclusion Act prohibited immigration from China=born Chinese people, with exception to students in 1882
Fun Facts
Red Cross founded by Clara Barton
President #21
Rockerfeller creates the Standard Oil Trust
Tariff Act of 1883 does little
Booker T. Washington creates the Tuskegee Institute
Grover Cleveland
(1885-1889)
Political Party:
Democratic
Vice President
T. Hendricks and Adlai Steveson
New States
Utah
Domestic Affairs
Haymarket Square bombing occurs during anarchist demonstration, followed by a riot and gunfire, two died
Foreign Affairs
Wilson-Gorman Act of 1894 reduces tariffs, initiates federal income tax
Fun Facts
Plessy v. Ferguson begins a new wave in Civil Rights movements
President #22
Apache wars end
Interstate Commerce Act calls for reasonable railroad rates, end to rebates
Supports arbitration by Great Britain over Guiana/ Venezuela border
Benjamin Harrison
(1889-1993)
Political Party:
Republican
Vice President
Levi Parsons Morton
New States

North Dakota
South Dakota
Montana
Washington
Idaho
Wyoming
Domestic Affair

Sherman Anti-Trust act passed in 1890
Sherman Silver Purchase Act called for the government to by 4.5 million ounces of silver for peoples' of the McKinley Tariff
Homestead strike leads to federal protection of non-union members
Foreign Affair
Police Chief Hennessey assassinated after investigation into Italian- American Mafia, 11 of 19 members killed
Fun Facts
Populist Party formed in 1890
President #23
McKinley Tariff sets tariff rate of 48% , leading to increased consumer prices
Grover Cleveland
(1893-1897)
Political Party:
Democratic
Vice President
T. Hendricks and Adlai Steveson
New States
Utah
Domestic Affairs
Haymarket Square bombing occurs during anarchist demonstration, followed by a riot and gunfire, two died
Foreign Affairs
Wilson-Gorman Act of 1894 reduces tariffs, initiates federal income tax
Fun Facts
Plessy v. Ferguson begins a new wave in Civil Rights movements
President #24
Apache wars end
Interstate Commerce Act calls for reasonable railroad rates, end to rebates
Supports arbitration by Great Britain over Guiana/ Venezuela border
William McKinley
(1897-1901)
Political Party: Republican
Vice Presidents
Garrett Hobart
and
Teddy Roosevelt
New States
None

Domestic Affair
McKinley annexes the Hawaiian islands in 1898
First grandfather dause emerges in Louisiana
Gold Standard Act of 1900 puts America back on the Gold standard
McKinley was assassinated in September 1901 by a disgruntled mill worker
Foreign Affair
Spanish-American war begins, Cuba is freed, Philippines comes under American control
Open Door Policy introduced in China, calling for equal trade to all nations
Dingley tariff act puts tariff back at 46%
Klondike gold rush begins
Fun Facts
William Mckinley was the first president in an automobile
President #25
Theodore Roosevelt
(1901-1909)
Political Party: Republican
Vice Presidents
Charles W. Fairbanks
New States
Oklahoma
Domestic Affairs
Insular cases deem Philippines and Puerto Rico as nationals/ territories, and therefore, get tariffs but no citizenship
Newlands Reclamation bill in 1902 championed conservation
Roosevelt intervenes in labor dispute over anthracite coal and gives "Square deal"
Federal meat inspection begins
Foreign Affair
Platt amendment calls for US protectorate of Cuba, naval base
Roosevelt defends Venezuela from German occupation
US gets full control of the Panama Canal
Roosevelt Corollary to Monroe Doctrine calls for interventio in Latin America if actions deem necessary
Fun Facts
First Flight, made by Orville and Wilbur Wright, occurs in 1903
President #26
William Howard Taft
(1909-1913)
Political Party: Republican
Vice President
James
Schoolcraft
Sherman
New States
New Mexico
Arizona
Domestic Affairs
Pinchot is removed from his post after calling for the preservation of natural resources under Federal jurisdiction
Foreign Affairs
Payne Aldrich Tariff Act brings tariff to 41% "Dollar Diplomacy"
Fun Facts
Became the first person to serve on all three branches of the government
President #27
Mann-Elkins act extends ICC control by regulating railroad prices, regulating telegraph and telephone industries under supervision
Woodrow Wilson
(1913-1921)
Political Party: Democratic
Vice President
Thomas R. Marshall
New States
None
Domestic Affairs
16th Amendment passed- income tax
17th Amendment passed- Senatorial elections by the people
Federal Reserve Act of 1913 creates "the Fed"
Smith Lever Act works between state and federal governements to fund educational systems
Espionage Act of 1917 makes recruitment, drafting impediments, as well as things detrimental to military morale, illegal
Foreign Affairs
Wilson fails to recognize Huerta's Mexican government
World War I break out with US remaining neutral for a while
Panama Canal finished
Zimmerman note pushes Americans to war
Literacy Tests instituted for immigrants in 1917
Selective Service Board created for draft
Fun Facts
Birth Control Clinic founded in 1914 by Margaret Sanger
Warren G. Harding
(1921-1923)
Political Party: Republican
Vice President
Calvin Coolidge
New States
None
Domestic Affairs
Scandals plagued Harding's presidency, including the famed Teapot Dome scandal, involving oil interests and federal involvement
Copper-Volstead act allows for group purchasing of farm equipment for farmers
Foreign Affairs
Immigration restricted to 3% of nationality population with the Dillingham Immigration Act of 1921
Naval fleets under Washington Disarmament Conference
Two Tariff bills passed, causing economic uncertainty
Fun Facts
Harding died in office on August 2, 1923
President #29

Calvin Coolidge
(1923-1929)
Political Party: Republican
Vice President
Charles Gates Dawes
New States
None
Domestic Affairs

Bonuses are given to WWI vets under Major over Coolidge's veto
Foreign Affairs
Immigration laws change: 2% of nationality population from 1890 to 1910, effecting Italians and Jews most, limitied immigratoin, exclusion of Japanese
Dawes Plan provides reparation loans
Kellogg-Briand pact "outlaws war" through 15 nations

Fun Facts
Cotton Picker invented in 1927
President #30
Herbert Clark Hoover
(1929-1933)
Political Party: Republican
Vice President
Charles Curtis
New States
None
Domestic Affairs
Stock Market Crash of 1929
Start of the Great Depression
Bonus Army March
Foreign Affairs
none
Fun Facts
Herbert Hoover was a Quaker
President #31
Franklin Delano Roosevelt
(1933-1945)
Political Party: Democrat
Vice Presidents
Garner and Wallace
New States
None
Domestic Affairs
21st Amendment - Repeal of prohibition (1933)
New Deal policies including the creation of the CCC, NRA, TVA brought about the beginnings of national recovery
Social Securtiy Act
Foreign Affairs
Pearly Harbor attacked: US enters WWII
Yalta Conference
Fun Facts
Franklin Delano Roosevelt is also known by FDR
President #32
Harry S. Truman
(1945-1953)
Political Party: Democrat
Vice President
Barkley
New States
None
Domestic Affairs
Taft-Hartley Act- labor law moderately restricting union activity
Foreign Affairs
End of World War II
United Nations Created
Cold War begins
NATO Treaty is formed
Korean Conflict begins
Fun Facts
Harry S. Truman had terrible eyesight
President #33
Dwight D. Eisenhower
(1953-1961)
Political Party: Republican
Vice President
Richard Nixon
New States
Alaska
Hawaii
Domestic Affairs
Alaska and Hawaii join the United States
Brown v. Board of Education
Little Rock Nine
Start of Civil Rights movement
Foreign Affairs
End of Korean War
Eisenhower Doctrine

Fun Facts
Eisenhower's nickname is "Ike"
President #34
John F. Kennedy
(1961- 1963)
Political Party: Democrat
Vice President
Lyndon B. Johnson
Domestic Affair
Created the Peace Corps
Alan Shepard became the first American in Space
Foreign Affairs
Berlin Wall built
Cuban Missile Crisis intensified tensions between USSR and the US
Fun Facts
Kennedy's right leg was proportionally longer than his feet
President #35
Lyndon B. Johnson
(1963-1969)
Political Party: Democrat
Vice President
Hubert Humphrey
Domestic Affairs
Civil Rights Act
Dr. Martin Luther King was assassinated
Medicare and Medicaid
Foreign Affairs
Vietnam Conflict (1963-1969)
Pueblo Incident- Capture of the USS Pueblo

Fun Facts
He was sworn to presidency in Air Force One
President # 36
Richard Nixon
(1969-1974)
Political Party: Republican
Vice President
Spiro Agnew and Gerald Ford
Domestic Affairs
Neil Armstrong becomes the first man to walk on the moon
Environmental Protection Agency created
Watergate Scandal breaks in 1973
Foreign Affairs
Nixon visits communist China
Vietnam war ends with US pulling out in 1973
Fun Facts
Nixon's nickname was "Tricky Dicky"
President #37
Gerald Ford
(1974-1977)
Political Party: Republican
Vice President
None
Domestic Affairs
Pardons Nixon for Watergate incident
Campaign Reform Law
Foreign Affairs
Communist victory in Southeast Asia
Helsinki Agreement
Fun Facts
Gerald Ford's Nickname was Jerry
President #38
Jimmy Carter
(1977-1981)
Political Party: Democrat
Vice Presidents
Walter Mondale
Domestic Affair
US officially recognizes People's Republic of China
Foreign Affairs
Panama Canal Treaty
Three Mile Island incident
Iran hostage Crisis
Fun Facts
Jimmy Carter listened to bluegrass music
President #39
Ronald Reagan
(1981-1989)
Political Party: Republican
Vice President
George H. Bush
Domestic Affairs
Attempted Assassination
Foreign Affairs
Granada invasion
Iran-Contra Scandal
Glasnost with the Soviet Union
Stark incident in Gulf War
Fun Facts
Reagan's first job was as a lifeguard
George H. Bush
(1989-1993)
Political Party: Republican
Vice President
Dan Quale
Domestic Affairs
Savings loan bail out
Exxon Valdez oil spill in Alaska
Foreign Affairs
Persian Gulf War
Break up of the Soviet Union
Invasion of Panama
Fun Facts
He was the youngest pilot in the U.S. Navy
President #40
Bill Clinton
(1993-2001)
Political Party: Democrat
Vice President
Al Gore
Domestic Affairs
World Trade Center Terrorist Bombing (2001)
Oklahoma City federal building Terrorist bombing
Foreign Affair
War in former Yugoslavia
Several Terrorist Attacks at the United States
Fun Facts
Clinton's child nickname was Bubba
President #41
President #42
George W. Bush
(2001-2009)
Political Party: Republican
Vice President
Dick Cheney
Domestic Affairs
None
Foreign Affairs
Terrorist Attack on the Pentagon and the World Trade Center in New York City
War in Afghanistan
War in Iraq
Fun Facts
George W. Bush's nickname is Dubya
President #43
Barrack Obama
(2009-Present)
Political Party:Democrat
Vice President
Joe Biden

Domestic Affairs
Implimented Obamacare
Signed health care and education reconciliation Act
Economic stimulus package
Foreign Affairs
Wants to end war on Iraq
Killed Osama Bin Ladin
Fight against Al Qaeda and the Taliban
Fun Facts
Obama has a dog named Bo
President #44
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