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NAMA e-learning CH2 - NAMA Terminology and Diversity

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UNEP DTU Partnership

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Transcript of NAMA e-learning CH2 - NAMA Terminology and Diversity

Module 1: Introduction to NAMAs
Chapter 2: NAMA Terminology and Diversity

References and Complementary Reading Material
Test Your Knowledge:

NAMAs in the Context of the 2⁰ C Goal
The identification of NAMA is an opportunity for developing countries to explore and exploit the possibilities for achieving deviations from their baseline or business as usual scenario for greenhouse gas emissions, and transforming their development towards low emission pathways.
"Mitigation action" = Contribute to the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions
NAMA Terminology
NAMA submissions to the UNFCCC
The first NAMAs to be submitted after the Cancun Agreements in 2010 were expressions of intentions to implement greenhouse gas mitigation actions or reach mitigation goals. Most of these NAMAs do not describe the steps, nor does it include plans for the implementation of the mitigation actions.
Diversity of NAMAs
It is a NAMA host country's prerogative to define the appropriateness of their mitigation actions.

This has resulted in the emergence of a variety of NAMAs, which generally fall in two overall categories Project NAMAs and Policy NAMAs.
Policy NAMAs
Project NAMAs
Project NAMAs are specific investments, generally in cleaner infrastructure or machinery.

These NAMAs may occur within broader frameworks, such as Low Emission Development Strategies, whose ultimate goal is a top-down process through which countries formulate appropriate mitigation actions.

Examples:
Solar and wind power plants
Promotion of minimum tillage agriculture
Deployment of energy-efficient industrial motors
Policy NAMAs are actions at the policy/regulatory level.

They typically require no further intervention by the regulator as they are designed to promote or impose a change of behaviour.

This is usually done through economic incentives (or disincentives) and by changing standards.

These are therefore government-led or measures, intended to be embodied in permanent legislation and implemented through policy instruments.

These NAMAs usually seek to implement a transformational vision and may have a national or sectoral level scope.

Examples:
Feed-in tariffs (FiTs) for renewable energy
Emissions trading schemes
Building code standards for energy efficiency

NAMA Typologies
Transformational Change
A requirement that increasingly is being mentioned for NAMA development is that it must have 'transformational' qualities.

It is thought to refer to the permanence of the initiative covered by the NAMA and therefore shifts the focus towards the policy NAMAs that would normally be based on a change in policies or regulations.

Short term programmes for the phasing out of certain technologies, can also be transformational.

Also larger scale projects as a large hydro power project that significantly changes the energy mix – can be transformations.
“Supported NAMA” = NAMAs seeking international support.

Developing countries may also implement NAMAs without support.

The distinction came about mostly for political reasons related to how the efforts made by developing countries were perceived, but it also had to do with possible MRV requirements.
Unilateral NAMAs
Supported NAMAs
Voluntary mitigation actions that developing countries are planning to implement on a unilateral basis.

Such actions, that are still deviations from a business as usual scenario, may be submitted to the NAMA Registry as 'NAMAs for recognition'.

Unilateral NAMAs are subject to domestic measuring, reporting and verification.

NAMAs should be included in the biennial update reports.
The biennial update reports are subject to an international consultations and analysis process.
NAMAs seeking financial support from international donors.

Countries could seek technology, financing and capacity-building support for NAMA preparation and/or NAMA implementation.

In practice, it may not be possible to make a distinction between unilateral and internationally supported NAMAs. Mitigation actions may initially be unilateral, but they may expand and develop and ultimately combine domestic and international support.

Such multiphase and multisource financial routes are more realistic in terms of making mitigation actions happen initially and structuring their financing over time.

“Supported NAMAs” may connote a certain approach to financing:
A clearly defined activity with a clear start- and end-date, with a financing gap to be closed by a donor. This could ultimately conflict with the nature of many NAMAs.
Ecofys, 2012:
Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Actions (NAMAs) and Carbon Markets
Distinction between unilateral and internationally supported NAMAs.
Source: UNEP Risoe NAMA Pipeline Analysis and Database, April 1st 2014
As a result, the NAMA Registry contains a category of domestically funded NAMAs, and it is hoped that this will facilitate international recognition of such efforts.

Most NAMAs submitted to the NAMA registry seek international support, of which the largest part is for implementation.
Situation of NAMA Development Worldwide
42 NAMAs submitted to the NAMA Registry (February 2014)
Most come from countries in Latin America - 5 countries
2 countries from the Asia and Pacific region have submitted NAMAs
1 country in each of the remaining regions have submitted NAMAs

Energy efficiency measures dominate amongst the NAMA submissions, followed by NAMAs on renewable energy measures.
Source: UNEP Risoe NAMA Pipeline Analysis and Database, April 1st 2014
Source: UNEP Risoe NAMA Pipeline Analysis and Database, April 1st 2014
NAMA Databases
Several NAMA databases have emerged aiming at collecting and systemizing information about the different emerging NAMAs.
UNFCCC NAMA Registry
The UNFCCC has established and is hosting the NAMA Registry, in which submissions from potential NAMA host countries are uploaded.

The submissions are divided in three categories, namely:
NAMA seeking support for preparation,
NAMA seeking support for implementation, and
Other NAMAs for recognition

The NAMA registry also invites submissions from agencies which provide NAMA financing.
So far seven institutions are registered as potential financiers of NAMAs.
The NAMA Registry can be accessed here:
http://www4.unfccc.int/sites/nama/SitePages/Home.aspx
NAMA Pipeline from the UNEP Risø Centre
The UNEP Risø Centre has created the NAMA Pipeline, containing all NAMAs submitted to the UNFCCC.

It differentiates between purely intentional NAMAs, and NAMAs describing specific actions and detailed plans for their implementation.

The NAMA Pipeline summarises the central information for each NAMA in more than 40 parameters regarding:
Title of the NAMA
Location
Implementation dates and duration
Financial information
Relevant sector, etc.

The NAMA Pipeline also differentiates between NAMA seeking international support and NAMAs seeking recognition.

It also provides an analysis of the NAMAs submitted, so they can be classified by country and sector parameters.

The NAMA pipeline also includes information on agencies providing financing for NAMAs.
NAMA Pipeline can be accessed here:
http://namapipeline.org/
Ecofys NAMA Database
Contains market intelligence from practitioners and donor and host organizations in the market, reporting to the database host.

The projects may not necessarily submitted to the NAMA Registry.

The database gives a visual overview of the geographical location of the NAMAs.
The Ecofys NAMA database can be accessed here:
http://www.nama-database.org/
The IPCC published its 4th Assessment Report stating that global emissions must be reduced by 50% below 1990 levels by 2050, followed by additional global emission reductions towards a zero carbon economy by the end of the century, to possibly keep the average temperature increase below 2⁰C.
The report concluded that developing countries in all regions would also need to achieve substantial deviation from their GHG emission baseline to be able to stay below the 2⁰C temperature increase.
The Bali Action Plan defines NAMAs as:

"
Nationally appropriate mitigation actions..in the context of sustainable development, supported and enabled by technology, financing and capacity-building, in a measurable, reportable and verifiable manner;..
"
"Nationally appropriate" =
Should be tailored to the national context, characteristics and capabilities
"Sustainable development" =
Should contribute to achieving national sustainable development priorities
"Supported and enabled" =
Responsibility assumed by the developed countries to support actions in developing countries
"Measurable, Reportable and Verifiable" =
Must lead to quantifiable and verifiable emission reductions, and be communicated to the UNFCCC
Debates are ongoing concerning MRV of finance, capacity building and technology transfer.
This definition delineates what a NAMA should consist of:

NAMAs are not legally binding.
Since 2012 several NAMAs have been submitted which include activities and detailed plans to implement specific mitigation actions.

There are currently 143 NAMAs submitted to the UNFCCC. Amongst these, only 41 are not target statements or mitigation goals, but specific focus areas, measures and specific actions.

The UNFCCC NAMA Registry lists only the NAMAs containing implementation plans and intentions for specific mitigation actions.

This course will focus only on these types of NAMAs.
Congratulations on Completing Chapter 2
IPCC, 2007:
Climate Change 2007: Synthesis Report,
Intergovernmental
Panel on Climate Change, 4th Assessment Report
http://www.ipcc.ch/publications_and_data/publications_ipcc_fourth_assessment_report_synthesis_report.htm
UNEP Risø Centre:
Understanding the Concept of Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Action
http://www.uneprisoe.org/PUBLICATIONS
It includes only those NAMAs which indicate specific actions.

Overall expressions of intentions to implement mitigation actions or reach mitigation goals are not included.
Unilateral NAMAs are not included.

Includes NAMAs that have specified a clear finance, technology or capacity building need, as well as feasibility studies describing a potential NAMA, even if they do not yet have government backing, or have being submitted to the NAMA Registry.

The NAMA Database also provides links to the yearly Annual Status Reports on NAMAs.

According to the latest report on (2013) most of the NAMAs and feasibility studies describing a potential NAMA are policy or programmes, followed by strategies and plans, with projects or specific actions being the smallest contributors to the total of identified NAMAs.
http://www.classmarker.com/online-test/start/?quiz=ygm53392de83e64b
Contributor:
Denis Desgain
Federico Antonio Canu
Full transcript