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Native American

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Kellie Jefcoat

on 8 October 2015

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Transcript of Native American

To Native Americans, Basketball has a religious and spiritual aspect to it, and it has been that way for hundreds of years.
Although the invention of basketball is credited to the Canadian doctor James Naismith in 1891, Native Americans have been playing forms of basketball for over 500 years.
Today, the Native American Basketball Invitational, (NABI), provides athletic scholarships to young natives so that they may further their education.
Kellie Herrington, Brooke Cole, Josh Corley, Shelia Strickland, and Cory Cooley
Native Americans
Native American Pop Culture
Author of at least five notable works, including "The Absolutely True Diary of a Part Time Indian"
Winner of the 2010 Faulkner Award
2007 National Book Award for Young People's Literature
Sherman Alexie
Most famously known for her voice as "Pocahontas"
Also known for her role in "Smoke Signals"
Irene Bedard
Nominated for an Academy Award for his performance in "Dances with Wolves"
Supporting roles in "The Green Mile" and "The Twilight Saga"
Guest Star in the new television series "Numb3rs"
Graham Greene
Gil Birmingham
Native American Cuisine
A few main foods...
Beans*
Corn*
Squash*
Sunflowers
Sweet Potatoes
Pumpkins
Deer Meat
Fish
Wild berries
http://www.tahtonka.com/food.html
Maple Mashed Sweet Potatoes
Stuffed Cornbread
"It's that need to be the best, that feeling of immortality, that drives a ballplayer. And when it disappears, for whatever reason, that ballplayer is never the same person, on or off the court."
- Sherman Alexie in
The Lone Ranger and Tonto Fistfight in Heaven
. (p. 46)
Pumpkin Muffins
Fry Bread
Most famously known for his supporting roles in the 2006 "Night at the Museum" and "The Twilight Saga"
Image Source: UNL's News Releases
Image Source: IndianMarket.net
Image Source: Brantnews.com
Image Source: IMDb.com
Video Source: YouTube- Jeffrey Visser
Source: www.fallsapart.com/biography/
Source: http://www.dvdizzy.com/pocahontas-interview.html
Source: http://www.firstamericans.org/?page=tickets&action=showcat&catid=11
Source: http://www.starpulse.com/Actors/Birmingham,_Gil/Biography/
Sherman Alexie's View on Native American Role in Pop Culture
"Well, that's always the thing that's curious to me, when people look at my work they always say I'm wrestling with popular culture. I mean I guess in some sense I am, but I'm engaged with it, we all are. I think there's always sort of this mode of academic discourse. I'm recalling specific reviews or interviews especially by Indian scholars that sort of treat my engagement with popular culture as some sort of betrayal. I'm remembering the phrase, and I can't remember who wrote it, was it Gloria Bird who wrote that I had fail to interrogate pop culture. That whole line of thinking always assumes that we Indians are outside of it. It also assumes that pop culture is somehow less than other parts of our culture. You know Shakespeare was pop culture. The Iliad and the Odyssey were pop culture. You can make arguments about maybe their pop culture was better, but I don't know, I would put The Sopranos up against King Lear."
Source: Essays in Film and the Humanities
Pocahontas
Native American Athletics
Sports for Early Native Americans
Used in religous ceremonies, to simulate war, settle territorial disputes between tribes, and for entertainment.
Information obtained from: "The Indian Origins. . ."
http://www.history.org/foundation/journal/winter10/lacrosse.cfm
A Sport Among Warriors: Stickball
Other Traditional Sports
Native American Art
How Art Was Used?
Art for native Americans was used to worship Gods.
It was also used to implement the beauty of of nature.
Native Americans only used nature for it's beauty and for their needs.
For example, Native Americans did not hunt for a sport.
Instead, they used the animals they killed for food, clothing, and tools.
They were the first actual eco friendly people
Water
Oil
Sandpaper
Pottery
Leather
Wood
Baskets
"He'd read about the Indian grandmother who designs them, each an original, before she sells them for a standard operating fee."(Alexie 38)
Basket Weaving
Basket weaving was different according to which tribe you were in
Baskets were used as storage
Overtime the style of basket weaving has changed according to what is being used to make the basket and other cultural influences
Basket weaving was a very popular form of artwork that served a dual purpose. Reeds and cornhusks were woven together to create intricate baskets. The material would be dyed to make interesting tribal patterns, resulting in a beautiful piece of art that was also useful, as the baskets were used to transport fruits and vegetables.
Pottery
Pottery was first created as a place to store corn
The beautiful colors are used in most pottery
Each tribe's pottery varies
Source:www.native-languages.org/pottery.htm
Source:www.native-languages.org/baskets.htm
ImgSource:www.prairieedge.com
Source:www.nativeamerican-art.com
Source:www.nativeamerican-art.com
Navajo
Hopi
Tewa Tribe
A common example of the way Native American pop culture is stereotypically portrayed is Pocahontas, a movie we all know and love. However, unlike the movie shows us, Pocahontas was actually a young girl around the age of ten or eleven. This notion alone is a key indication that Hollywood will do whatever it takes to use the Native American culture as a profit, not as an accurate portrayal.
Source: http://disneyandmovies.pbworks.com/w/page/17905676/1%20Pocahontas
Most popular sport among Native Americans.
Up to 2,000 tribe members would be on the field, which would span for miles on uneven ground. It was not uncommon to see multiple injuries, or even death on the field. Stickball translates to "Little Brother of War."
Foundation of modern-day Lacrosse.
http://www.pbs.org/indiancountry/challenges/games.html
http://nativeamericanencyclopedia.com/native-american-sports/
Second in popularity behind Stickball.
Mostly played by women. First forms of field
hockey.Fields could stretch up to one mile. In more violent tribes, such as the Crow, women would play against the men.
Shinny
Snow-Snake
Played by tribes in extreme cold temperatures. Involved sliding darts or spears along the snow/ice as far as possible. Men played variations that involved throwing a spear through layers of snow.
Hoop and Pole
A hoop, anywhere from 3" to 1' in diameter, was rolled along the ground and participants tried to knock it down with arrows or a spear.
http://nativeamericanencyclopedia.com/native-american-sports/
The Modern Native and Basketball
Object of the game: Using only a netted stick, travel across a great distance with a small ball, usually made of buckskin or wood, and cross a "goal line" marked by two poles.
Even though tribes were extremely diverse across America, several games, such as "Stickball," were widespread.
Earliest forms of Native American Gambling. (Skins, beads, and even baskets of food were gambled)
We read about this in "The Lone Ranger and Tonto Fistfight in Heaven!
4 cups white flour
1/2 teaspoon salt
1 tablespoon baking powder
Combine all ingredients.
Add about 1 1/2 cups lukewarm
water and knead until dough is soft
but not sticky. Shape dough into
balls the size of a small peach. Shape into patties by hand; dough should be about l/2 inch thick.
Make a small hole in the center of the round.
Fry one at a time in about l inch of hot lard or shortening in a heavy pan. Brown on both sides. Drain on paper towels and serve hot with honey or jam.
Basketball is recognized as the most popular sport among Native Americans today.
http://www.nbahoopsonline.com/Articles/History1.html
Native American basketball heroes are not measured by statistics, but by their approach to the game. For example, in
The

Lone

Ranger

and

Tonto

Fistfight

in

Heaven
, Silas Sirius was a reservation hero for years, and only scored one basket his whole career (p. 47).
"There's a definite history of reservation heroes who never finish high school, who never finish basketball seasons." -Sherman Alexie, The Lone Ranger and Tonto Fistfight in Heaven (p.47)
http://eng254project.webs.com/basketball.htm
"Every time I tried to shoot the ball, there was a storm of Locusts come flyin' in and blind me. . . But. . . My boy Victor, he flew. Right over them Jesuits, like an Indigenous Angel or somethin', except his wings were made of TV dinner trays." - Arnold Joseph,

Smoke Signals
Native American Instruments
Native American instruments consist of, but are not limited to, different types of: drums, flutes, and rattles.
DRUMS
FLUTES
RATTLES
6 lb sweet potatoes
1 stick (1/2 cup) unsalted butter, melted
1/2 cup heavy cream, warmed
2 tablespoons pure maple syrup
1 teaspoon salt
1/2 teaspoon black pepper
Preheat oven to 400°F.
Prick each potato twice with a fork and bake in a foil-lined shallow baking pan in lower third of oven until very tender, about 1 hour. Remove and cool slightly.
Halve potatoes lengthwise and scoop out warm flesh into a large bowl. Mash potatoes with a potato masher or, for a smoother purée, force through a potato ricer. Stir in butter, cream, syrup, salt, and pepper.
"During all these kinds of tiny storms, Victor's mother would rise with her medicine and magic. She would pull air down from empty cupboards and make fry bread" Sherman Alexie, (5)
1 cup raisins
1/2 cup unsweetened orange juice
1/2 cup egg substitute
1 cup canned pumpkin
1/2 cup sugar
1/2 tsp. ground cloves
1 tsp. ground cinnamon
1/2 tsp. salt
1/3 cup canola oil
1 cup all-purpose flour
3/4 cup whole wheat flour
1 1/2 tsp. baking powder
1/2 tsp. baking soda
Soak raising in orange juice for 5 minutes. Do not drain.
In large mixing bowl, stir in pumpkin, egg substitute, sugar, cloves, cinnamon and salt. Add oil, mix well. Stir together flours, baking powder and baking soda. Add to pumpkin mixture with the raisin-orange juice mixture and stir to mix. Fill paper-lined muffin cups 2/3 full. Bake
at 400F for about 25 minutes. Remove from muffin tins and cool on wire rack.
Works Cited
1. Visser, Jeffrey. General Custer Night at the Museum 2. 2009. YouTube. <http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=AuOVsuIEfYE> 24 Jan. 2013.
2. Alexie, Sherman. Sherman Alexie, Officially. FallsApart Productions.
24, Jan 2013.
3. Kunkel, Marianne. "UNL's Prairie Schooner to launch Native American issue Jan. 28-29." 10 Jan 2013. UNL News Releases. <http://newsroom.unl.edu/releases/2013/01/10/UNL's+Prairie+Schooner+to+launch+Native+American+issue+Jan.+28-29> 24 Jan 2013.
4. Joy, Renata. "An Interview with Pocahontas." 11 May 2005. Ultimate Disney. <http://www.dvdizzy.com/pocahontas-interview.html> 24 Jan 2013.
5. "Texas Festival Special Attractions." IndianMarket. <http://www.indianmarket.net/P16.html> 25 Jan 2013.
6. "Native American Actors- Graham Greene." 2011. FirstAmericans.org. <http://www.firstamericans.org/?page=tickets&action=showcat&catid=11> 25 Jan 2013.
7. Teakle, Jason. "Showcasing Six Nations Talent." 26 June 2012. Brant News. <http://www.brantnews.com/whats-on/showcasing-six-nations-talent/> 25 Jan 2013.
8. "Gil Birmingham Biography." 2013. Star Pulse. <http://www.starpulse.com/Actors/Birmingham,_Gil/Biography/> 25 Jan 2013.
9. "Gil Birmingham." 2013. IMDb. <http://www.imdb.com/name/nm0083655/> 25 Jan 2013.
10. Nunez, Veronica. "Disney Movies and Racism: Pocahontas." 2009. Disney and Movies: PB Works. <http://disneyandmovies.pbworks.com/w/page/17905676/1%20Pocahontas> 25 Jan 2013.
11. Hearne, Joanna. "Remembering Smoke Signals: Interviews with Chris Eyre and Sherman Alexie." Essays in Film and the Humanities (2010): 119-135. Web.
Native American agriculture was very advanced in the southern most part of the United States. Native Americans in this area used special techniques for their farming such as, irrigation and crop rotation. There were tribes that would harvest enough that would help them through the winter and then there were tribes that would hunt during the winter months for food. Besides food crops many Native Americans grew cotton, hemp, tobacco, and medicinal plants.
http://www.native-languages.org/food.htm
1 cup yellow cornmeal
1/2 cup flour
2 tablespoons white sugar
2 tablespoons baking powder
1/2 teaspoon garlic powder (optional)
2/3 cup half-and-half cream (or use milk)
2 large eggs
1 1/2 teaspoons seasoning salt or 1/2 teaspoon white salt
1/3 cup melted butter or 1/3 cup vegetable oil
1 small onions, finely chopped or 1 small green onion
1 (14 ounce) can creamed corn
1 cup frozen corn, thawed or 1 cup drained canned corn niblet
1 1/2 cups grated cheddar cheese
2 jalapeno peppers, seeded and finely chopped (or to taste)
Directions:
Set oven to 350 degrees.
Butter a 8 x 8-inch or a 9 x 9-inch square baking dish.
In a large bowl mix together cornmeal with flour, sugar baking powder, garlic powder, milk, eggs, seasoned salt and melted butter or oil until well blended.
Add in onion and creamed corn and thawed corn; mix to combine.
Pour half the batter into prepared baking dish.
Sprinkle the layer with grated cheese and jalapeno peppers.
Pour the remaining batter on top of the cheese and jalapeno peppers.
Bake for about 35-45 minutes or until golden on top and a toothpick inserted in the middle comes out clean (baking time will vary slightly depending on the size of pan used).
Allow to cool slightly before slicing.
"An interesting fact about this Food Trio is that
they are all interdependent on one another.
Beans grow up the Corn stalks and add the nutrients
(Nitrogen) to the soil that the others need to grow.
Squash is planted in between them to keep weeds out." -Tahtonka
Works Cited
"ÂFacts for Kids: Native American Food." Native American Food: Agriculture, Hunting and Gathering, Fishing, and Other American Indian Food Sources. The Native Language of Americas, 23 Jan. 13. Web. 30 Jan. 2013. <http://www.native-languages.org/food.htm>.
http://mypeoplepc.com/members/cherlyn/onefeather/id5.html
"Native American Recipes." Native American Recipes. One Feather, 12 May 12. Web. 30 Jan. 2013. <http://mypeoplepc.com/members/cherlyn/onefeather/id5.html>.
wOrKs CiTeD
Tahtonka. "American Native Food." American Native Food. Tahtonka, 11 Jan. 13. Web. 30 Jan. 2013. <http://www.tahtonka.com/food.html>.
Alexie, Sherman. The Lone Ranger and Tonto Fistfight in Heaven. New York: Grove, 2005. Print.

Aveni, Anthony. “The Indian Origins of Lacrosse” History.Org The Colonial Williamsburg Foundation Journal. The Colonial Williamsburg Foundation. Winter 2010. http://www.history.org/foundation/journal/winter10/lacrosse.cfm

“Economic Development: Traditional Indian Gaming” pbs.org. Native American Public Telecommunications. Sept. 2006. http://www.pbs.org/indiancountry/challenges/games.html

Faurchou. "History of Basketball” nbahoopsonline.com. n.p. n.d. http://nbahoopsonline.com/Articles/History4.html

Lewis, Winchell, Brown, and Webb. “Native American Basketball” Eng254project.webs.com. n.p. 2009. http://eng254project.webs.com/basketball.htm

"Native American Sports" NativeAmericanEncyclopedia.com Unabridged. Native American Encyclopedia 25 Jan. 2013. <NativeAmericanEncyclopedia.com http://nativeamericanencyclopedia.com/native-american-sports/>.

Smoke Signals. By Sherman Alexie. Miramax Films, 1998. DVD.
Presented By Yours Truly: Cory Cooley
Alexie, Sherman. The Lone Ranger and Tonto Fistfight in Heaven. New York: Grove, 2005. Print.
originally made of bone
3rd oldest known instrument
also made from various hard and soft woods
3 - 8 holes
http://www.wind-dancer-flutes.com/History_of_the_native_american_f.htm
http://www.abcarticledirectory.com/Article/Native-American-Drums-And-The-History-Of-Native-Americans/61154
made from wooden base, animal hide and sinew thongs
originally played by a group of men sitting around one drum
in some tribes, the man is allowed his own drum, known to nonnatives as a "tomtom"; "tomtom" actually comes from a British word for a child's drum toy
http://www.native-languages.org/drums.htm
used to keep rhythm in tribal dances
contains seeds, rocks, and/or shells
signifies independence
represents the animal kingdom, plant kingdom and earth
http://www.indians.org/articles/native-american-rattles.html
Native American Dances
Cherokee Powwow Dance
Native American Music Awards (NAMA's)
The 14th Annual NAMA will be held May 10th, 2013 at Seneca Niagara Casino and Hotel, Niagara Falls, New York
Notable Categories:
Best Traditional
Best Flutist
Native Heart
Walia
Notable NAMA Hall of Fame:
Jimi Hendrix 1998 (Cherokee)
Hank Williams 1999 (Chocktaw)
Ricky Medlock 2008 (Blackfoot)
http://www.nativeamericanmusicawards.com/home.cfm
Vocals
Regarded as one of the most complex forms of music
Used to invoke the Spirit to send rain, healing powers, victory, etc.
With different tribes scattered throughout America, many music forms vary and differ greatly
No harmony
In most cases, men and women sing their own songs and perform their own dances
http://www.indians.org/articles/native-american-music.html
Wide span of meanings, ranging from good fortune in an upcoming battle, to heal sick or wounded or to ask for rain.
Men typically dance
around in a circle.
Women typically dance
in one place.
http://mypeoplepc.com/members/cherlyn/onefeather/id5.html
http://mypeoplepc.com/members/cherlyn/onefeather/id5.html
Works Cited
Alexie, Sherman. The Lone Ranger and Tonto Fistfight in Heaven. New York: Atlantic Monthly,
1993. Print.

"Native American Art, Craft & Culture." Native American Art. N.p., 2010-2011. Web. 31 Jan. 2013.
<http://www.prairieedge.com/>.

"Native American Art: Sandpainting, Baskets, Pottery and Painting." Native American Art:
Sandpainting, Baskets, Pottery and Painting. N.p., 2010. Web. 31 Jan. 2013. <http://www.nativeamerican-art.com/>.

Redish, Laura. "Native Languages of the Americas:Preserving and Promoting American Indian
Languages." Native American Language Net: Preserving and Promoting Indigenous American Indian Languages. N.p., 1998. Web. 31 Jan. 2013. <http://www.native-languages.org/>.
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