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The Great Depression
Transcript of The Great Depression
Dust bowl refugees
The stock market crashing in October of 1929 is said to have been the start of the Great Depression in the United States.
In the 1920's, people really trusted that the stock market would just keep going up and up, and even the banks trusted that the shared prices would go up.
When the stock market crashed, banks lost a lot of money, and naturally, people began to panic and hurried off to take their money out of the banks, but some were too late and the banks did not have it; which left those who were too late, completely broke.
Thousands of banks were forced to close. In 1931, more than 2,000 banks were closed, then by 1933, 4,000 banks were closed.
“1929 Stock Market Crash.” 2013. The History Channel website. Aug 11 2013, 8:42 <http://www.history.comhttp://www.history.com/videos/1929-stock-market-crash>.
Businesses and Industries
Businesses and industries were really affected by the banks closing and the Stock Market crashing.
Many of them had to cut back on their workers' hours or wages.
When that wasn't enough, the businesses were forced to close down, leaving all the workers unemployed.
The year 1933 was the peak of the unemployment rate. 25% of the U.S. was unemployed and the stock market was 75% below the 1929 high.
The End of the Great Depression
Franklin D. Roosevelt
Millions of people across the United States were unemployed during the Great Depression.
Because there weren't any jobs locally, many people rode the rail roads or hitchhiked to different towns in search for work.
Most of the people who rode the rails were teenagers, but there were also many older men, women, and entire families that would board the freight trains.
People who were homeless and couldn't find any work would stay in shantytowns that were called "Hoovervilles."
The shantytowns' housing was made out of materials such as newspaper, driftwood or cardboard.
Migrant workers were laborers who traveled from place to place offering their labor to plant or harvest the crops.
They were paid with low wages and lived in horrible conditions.
Even very young children worked in the fields alongside their family.
In the 1930's, dust storms mixed with drought and agricultural damage resulted in major storms and destruction in the region that is now known as the Dust Bowl.
All the dust made breathing, eating, and being outside a challenge for everyone.
Thousands of refugees packed up and headed to the West where they heard there was work, food, and land.
Numerous city dwellers became homeless because of the high amount of businesses that got shut down during the Great Depression.
Many of them went hungry, but sometimes, in big cities, they were able to eat at soup kitchens.
It was especially hard for the poor in the winter because they had no money to buy coal to warm their homes.
Franklin Roosevelt was elected as the President of the U.S. in November of 1932.
By March, almost every bank was closed in the United States and 13 million people were unemployed.
In Franklin's first "hundred days," he proposed a program that brought recovery to agriculture, businesses, and relief to the unemployed.
Roosevelt brought hope back to the American people and guided them through these troubled times.
The major event that brought the U.S. out of the Great Depression was the bombing of Pearl Harbor.
The United States entered World War II and weapons, artillery, ships, airplanes and food were needed.
WWII put both men and women to work and it is thought to have fully brought the U.S. out of the Great Depression.
In other past depressions, farmers were usually the safest from the severe effects of depressions because they didn't starve.
Because of the Dust Bowl, the conditions changed.
Nothing was growing and therefore there was nothing to eat and the farmers were forced to change locations.
Minorities during the Great Depression were treated unfair.
They were paid lower wages than everybody else and they had to work in harsher conditions.
"In 1932, unemployment among African Americans was about 50 percent, twice the national average." (History - America's First Look into the Camera: Daguerreotype Portraits and Views. www.loc.gov)
"History - America's First Look into the Camera: Daguerreotype Portraits and Views, 1839-1862 - Collection Connections | Teacher Resources - Library of Congress." Library of Congress Home. N.p., n.d. Web. 11 Aug. 2013. <http://www.loc.gov/teachers/classroommaterials/connections/depression-bw/history4.html>.
"About The Dust Bowl." Welcome to English « Department of English, College of LAS, University of Illinois. Modern American Poetry, n.d. Web. 11 Aug. 2013. <http://www.english.illinois.edu/maps/depr>.
Honors Sophomore English
Clothing & Entertainment
Since people during the Great Depression didn't have spare money, clothes were always recycled.
Young children depended on hand-me-downs for their clothing.
Some people would make clothing out of flour sacks.
With no spare money to spend, families would play board games or card games for entertainment.
Kids and teenagers would spend a lot of their free time playing sports and/or being with their friends.
Brother, Can You Spare a Dime?
By Jay Gorney / E.Y. "Yip" Harburg
Performed by Rudy Vallée