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WWI (Day 1)
Transcript of WWI (Day 1)
2. Is the "watchdog" a good role for the United States? Why? Opener: I. Causes of WWI A. Militarism
*Cost of building, defending empires leads to more military spending
*Militarism - development of armed forces, and its use in diplomacy
*By 1890, Germany has strongest military in Europe
-competes with Britain for sea power
-leads other powers to join naval arms race 1. What country was Germany competing with in regards to naval power?
d. Russia B. Alliance System *Triple Entente or Allies
-France, Britain, Russia
-Germany, Austria-Hungary, Ottoman Empire Class Discussion: Why do we, the U.S. need alliances? Answer: In short, to give countries security C. Nationalism *Nationalism - devotion to interests, culture of one's nation
*Nationalism leads to competition, antagonism between nations
*Many fear Germany's growing power in Europe
*Various ethnic groups resent domination, want independence
*Russia sees self as protector of all Slavic peoples D. Imperialism *Germany industrializes, competes with France, Britain for colonies Fill in the blank:
2. Extreme patriotism is known as ___________________.
d. Patriotism E. Assassination *Balkan Peninsula known as "the powder keg of Europe because:
-ethnic rivalries among Balkan peoples
-leading powers have economic, political interests
*Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria shot by Serbian nationalist (The Black Hand)
*Austria-Hungary declares war on Serbia, expects short war
*Alliance system pulls one nation after another into war II. The Fighting Starts A. The Early Battles *Germany's Schlieffen Plan: hold Russia, defeat France, then Russia
*German troops sweep through Belgium, cause major refugee crisis
*By spring 1915, 2 parallel systems of trenches cross France
*"No man's land" - barren expanse of mud between opposing trenches
*Scale of killing horrific, fighting inconclusive
*Armies fight to gain only yards of ground in bloody trench warfare 3. Which of the following parts of M.A.N.I.A is missing?
Militarism, Nationalism, Alliances, Imperialism
d. assassination III. Americans Questions Neutrality A. Divided Loyalties *Socialists, pacifists, many ordinary people against U.S. in war
*Naturalized citizens concerned about effect on country of birth
*Many feel ties to British ancestry, language, democracy, legal system
*U.S. has stronger economic ties with Allies than with Central Powers 4. What does the term "pacifist" mean?
a. someone against war
b. someone from the pacific ocean
c. a communist
d. someone with German ancestry IV. The War Hits Home A. The U.S. Prepares *By 1917, U.S. has mobilized for war against Central Powers to:
-ensure Allied repayment of debts
-prevent Germans threat to U.S. shipping B. The British Blockade *British blockade, mine North Sea, stop war supplies reaching Germany
-also stop food, fertilizer
*U.S. merchant ships seldom reach Germany
*Germany has difficulty importing food, fertilizer; by 1917, famine Class discussion:
Should war include citizens? C. The German U-Boat response *Germany sets up U-boat counterblockade of Britain
*U-boat sinks British ship "Lusitania"; 128 Americans among the dead
-U.S. public opinion turns against Germany
*President Wilson protests, but Germany continues to sink ships
*Germany asks U.S. to get Britain to end food blockades
-otherwise will renew unrestricted submarine warfare D. The 1916 Election *Democrat Woodrow Wilson defeats Republican Charles Evans Hughes V. The U.S. Declares War A. German Provocation *Wilson tries to mediate, calls for a "peace between equals"
*Kaiser announces U-boats will sink all ships in British waters
*Zimmerman Note - proposes alliance of Germany and Mexico against U.S.
*Four unarmed Amerian merchant ships sunk
*Russian monarchy replaced with representative government
-war of democracies against monarchs 5. Which country did Germany try to form an alliance with in regards to the Zimmerman Note?
d. U.S. B. America Acts *Wilson calls for war to make world "safe for democracy" END