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The Human Digestive System

A late Christmas prezy!!

Victoria Mcknight

on 19 September 2012

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Transcript of The Human Digestive System

The Digestive System Humans For Humans, digestion primarily occurs in the Ailmentary Canal. To get and use food humans must: Ingest Digest- 4 ways Mechanical Digestion Take in food Chemical Digestion Absorb Eliminate Ingestion/Digestion Oral Cavity Digestion begins in the mouth. Mechanical Digestion Teeth breaks down the food (Mastication). Chemical Digestion Saliva Amylase Mucin Buffers Antibacterial Chemicals Diseases/Symptoms Ginigivitis: Inflammation of the gums. Pharynx Throat Deglutition (Swallowing occurs) The epiglottis is made of cartilage and is what covers the opening of the trachea to prevent food and other foreign bodies from entering the airway. Uvula It has several functions, including preventing food from entering the nasal cavity, causing the gag reflex, and aids in creating several types of speech sounds. Diseases/Symptoms Acute Pharyngitis: Sore throat due to cold. Symptoms * Red Gums

*Swollen Gums

*Bleeding Gums

*Tender Gums

*Bad Breath *Enzyme that digests starch *Slippery (Mucus)
*Protects lining of digestive system
*Lubricates food for easier swallowing *Neutralizes acid to prevent tooth decay *Kills bacteria that enter mouth with food Treatments 1. Scaling- thoroughly cleaning your teeth. This includes removing all traces of plaque and tartar. 2. Antiseptic Mouth Wash- To clear bacteria. 3. Daily brushing and flossing. Symptoms Causes 1. Viruses

2. Breathing through the mouth can produce throat dryness and soreness.

3. A sore throat can also be caused by bacteria.
* Two most common are:
-Streptococcus: Strep Throat
- Arcanobacteriuhaemolyticum:
Sore throat with red rash 1. Sore throat (Discomfort, pain, or scratchiness of the throat.)
2. Difficulty swallowing Treatments/Cures Take acetaminophen, ibuprofen or naproxen to relieve pain.
Gargle with warm salt water (1 teaspoon of salt per 1 cup [8 ounces] of water).
Suck on throat lozenges or hard candy.
Suck on flavored frozen desserts (such as Popsicles).
Use a humidifier in your bedroom or other rooms you spend lots of time in.
Drink lots of liquids. They help keep your throat lubricated and prevent dehydration. Esophagus 9-10 inch muscular tube extending from the pharynx to the stomach. Transports food to the stomach by Peristalsis. Propels food into a bolus. Stomach Functions:
-Food storage
*Can store up to 2L of food.
-Disinfect food
*HCl (Hydrochloric Acid)
~Kills Bacteria
~Breaks apart cells
-Chemical Digestion
~Enzyme that breaks down proteins
~Secreted as Pepsinogen, activated by HCL WHAT KEEPS THE STOMACH FROM DIGESTING ITSELF? FUN FACT!!! Answer: Mucus! Small Intestine Functions:
-Chemical Digestion
~Major organ of digestion and absorption

-Absorbtion through lining
~Over 6 meters long
~Surface area of 300m^2

~3 Sections:
Duodenum=Most digestion
Jejunum=Most absorption of nutrients and waste
Ileum=Some absorption of nutrients and waste Duodenum 1st section

Acid and food from stomach mixes with digestive juices from accesory organs:
1. Pancreas
2. Liver
3. Gallbladder 1. Pancreas Digestive Enzymes
1. Peptidases
a. Trypsin-released as trypsinogen
b. Chymotrypsin-released as chimotrypsinogen
c. Carboxypeptidase-released as procarboxypeptidase
2. Amylase

-Reduces acidity 2. Liver Functions:

-Produce Bile
~Stored in gallbladder
~Breaks up fat, acts like detergents Absorption by the Small Intestine Absorption happens through villi and microvilli
-Finger like projections that increase the surface area for absorption

Absorption of nutrients
-Passive transport
-Active transport
~Pump amino acids, vitamins, glucose against cell membranes.
~Allows intestine to absorb much higher proportion of nutrients, Large Intestine (colon) Major function to re-absorb water FUN FACT!! Did you know, our body uses 9
liters in digestive juice everyday! 90% of water is re-absorbed
-When not enough water is
absorbed back to body

-Too much water absorbed back
to body
~Constipation Irritable bowel syndrome Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) refers to a disorder of the lower intestinal tract. It involves abdominal pain and abnormal bowel movements. Emotional stress often makes the symptoms worse. *Abdominal distention
*Abdominal fullness, gas, bloating
*Abdominal pain that:
~Comes and goes
~Is reduced or goes away after a bowel movement
~Occurs after meals
*Chronic and frequent constipation, usually accompanied by pain
*Chronic and frequent diarrhea, usually accompanied by pain
*Emotional distress
*Loss of appetite Symptoms may include: Treatments: The goal of treatment is to relieve symptoms.
Regular exercise and improved sleep habits may reduce anxiety and help relieve bowel symptoms.
Dietary changes can be helpful. However, no specific diet can be recommended for IBS in general, because the condition differs from one person to another. Increasing dietary fiber and avoiding foods and drinks that stimulate the intestines (such as caffeine) may help.
Other possible treatments may include:
Counseling in cases of severe anxiety or depression
Antidiarrheal medications
Low-dose antidepressants to help relieve intestinal pain
Medications to stimulate bowel movements for those with constipation Tests and diagnosis Some patients may need an endoscopy, especially if symptoms begin later in life. Younger patients with persistent diarrhea may need this test to look for inflammatory bowel diseases that can cause similiar symptoms, such as Crohn's disease or ulcerative colitis. You may need additional tests if you have blood in your stool, weight loss, signs of anemia, or you have recently traveled.
Patients over age 50 should be screened for colon cancer. Muscular tube lined with mucus membrane.

About 5 inches long.

Passageway for air traveling from nose to trachea,
and for food traveling from oral cavity to esophagus. DID YOU KNOW... Living in the intestine is a flora of harmless, helpful, bacteria. This includes E. Coli, bacteria that produce vitamins, and generate gasses! Rectum Last section of colon (large intestine)
-Eliminate feces
~Undigested material
-Eliminate salts
-Eliminate masses of bacteria
PROCESS called.............. .....how it all works! EGESTION Now a summary video Using our friends ENZYMES it really is quite graphic!!
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