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Urban Geography

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Matt Gough

on 26 February 2016

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Transcript of Urban Geography

Urban Geography
design by Dóri Sirály for Prezi
Worldwide, more people live in urban areas than in rural areas.

In 2010, China, which was traditionally rural, had more than 50% of its population living in urban areas.

It had been 36.1% urban in 2000.
The innovation of the city is called the first urban revolution, and it occurred independently in 6 separate
hearths
.
-What is the term for the same idea being created in different areas?
i_________ i_________

-Any guesses for what the 6 are?
When and Why
Cities Developed

Each city in the world is where it is because of some decision, some perception of the site or its situation.

It is important to look at the
trade areas
of different-size cities.

Where are Cities Located and Why?
The Hearths of Urban Development
Greece is not an urban hearth because agriculture and urbanization diffused to Greece from Mesopotamia.

It is more accurate to call it a
secondary hearth
of urbanization, because the Greek city did influence urban developments in Europe and beyond (as European ideas diffused globally during _______.

Greek cities began around 1,500 BC.
Greek and Roman Cities
After the Roman Empire fell in 476 AD, the Middle Ages began in Europe (about 500 AD to 1300 AD).

During the first 2/3 of this period, little urban growth occurred.

The growth that did occur took place along the site of oases and resting places along the Silk Route between Europe and Asia.
Urban Growth After Greece and Rome
What is the definition of urban?




Urban areas have occupational specialization, where people work in a wide variety of fields.


Urban
refers to the built-up space of the central city and suburbs.

An urban place is nonrural and nonagricultural.
Cities are centers of:
-political power
-higher education and technological innovation
-artistic achievement
-medical advances

Cities are:
-sources of news and information
-suppliers of services
-providers of sports and entertainment

Cities are the anchors and instigators of modern culture.
In the modern era,
urbanization
can happen quickly.

During the second half of the 20th century, the Chinese government announced a major economic development project in Guangdong, a province in southern China.

The Chinese government established a special economic zone, and business and industry mushroomed.
The small fishing village of Shenzhen in Guangdong is adjacent to Hong Kong.

When the special economic zone was setup, hundreds of industries moved from Hong Kong to Shenzhen to take advantage of lower labor costs.
As a result, the fishing village experienced extraordinary growth.

The population swelled from 20,000 to 8 million in just 30 years.

Skyscrapers now tower where thatch houses, rice paddies, and duck ponds once stood.
The rise of the city is a very recent phenomenon in human history.

Human communities have existed for over 100,000 years, but more than 90,000 years passed before people began to cluster in towns.

Only in the last 200 years did cities begin to resemble their modern size and structure.
In mankind's history, what had to happen before urbanization could occur?

Mankind was hunting and gathering...how did we get to urbanization?
Archaeologists have found evidence of early agriculture between 10,000 and 12,000 years ago.

Most believe that the first cities came several thousand years after the origins of agriculture.
Differences between
agricultural villages
and cities.

There are ruins in Turkey that are 12,000 years old - but this is not the first city.
-Catal Huyuk
Everyone living in agricultural villages was involved in agriculture.

The dwellings were about the same size and contained about the same number of possessions.
-Why is number of possessions important for determining whether a site is an agricultural village?
Two components enabled cities to stabilize and grow:
1. agricultural surplus
2. social stratification
Some series of events led to the formation of an agricultural surplus and a
leadership class
.
-Either the surplus came first and the leadership class controlled the surplus.
-Or the leadership class formed first and demanded more labor to create an agricultural surplus.

The leadership class controlled the distribution of the surplus.
-The home of the leaders was often positioned close the grain storage.
The leadership class, or urban elite, were a group of decision makers and organizers who controlled the resources, and often the lives, of others.

An agricultural surplus enabled some people to devote their efforts to pursuits other than agriculture.
With the leadership class not working the fields, they could develop:
-religion and philosophy
-writing and record keeping
-laws and traditions
-walls for protection
-tax-collecting
Independent invention
The 6 urban hearths are tied closely to the hearths of agriculture.

The first hearth of agriculture, the Fertile Crescent, has the first evidence of cities, dating to about 3,500 BC.

This urban hearth is called Mesopotamia
-The term refers to the region of great cities (such as Ur and Babylon) located between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers.

After 2,000 years of development, cities
had 10,000-15,000 inhabitants.
The second hearth of urbanization in the Nile River Valley dates back to 3,200 BC.

There's a strong relationship between urbanization and irrigation in this region.

The leadership class' rule in the Nile River Valley is seen in the pyramids, tombs, and statues they created.
Karnak in Luxor, Egypt
The Pyramids at
Giza
The third urban hearth, from 2,200 BC, is the Indus River Valley. (see pg. 250-251 for maps)

Scholars have been unable to decipher Indus writing, so the cities of the Indus River Valley (Harappa and Mohenjo-Daro) are still mysteries.

The cities were intricately planned, so a leadership class probably existed, but the houses were equal in size.


Also, all the dwellings had access to the same infrastructure, including wastewater drains and stone-lined wells.

Archaeologists have discovered coins from as far away as the Mediterranean, so there was trade over long distances.
The fourth urban hearth occurred in the Huang He (Yellow) and Wei Valleys in China around 1,500 BC

The urban elite in this hearth built enormous, elaborate structures.

Emperor Qin Xi Huang had the Great Wall of China built around 200 BC.

He also had an elaborate tomb, including the famous 7,000 terracotta warriors.

The fifth urban hearth was in Mesoamerica dating back to 1,100 BC.

The ancient cities were religious centers.
-The Olmecs built cities on the Gulf Coast

The Mayans built cities in the same
region that were also based on religius
temples.

Tikal, in modern-day Guatemala
The sixth urban hearth was in Peru, starting around 900 BC.

The largest settlement, Chavin, was at an elevation of 10,530 feet in the Andes.

The Chavin pre-dated the Incas (who
only came to pre-eminence in Peru
during the 1400s).
By 500 BC, Greece had become one of the most urbanized areas on Earth.

At its height, ancient Greece encompassed 500 cities and towns, on the mainland and islands.

Sailors connected these urban places with trade routes and carried the idea of urban life throughout the Med.

Athens and Sparta were Greece's leading cities.
-At the time, Athens might have been the biggest in the world, with 250,000 inhabitants.
Every Greek city had an
acropolis
, on which the people built the most impressive structures (usually religious buildings).

The Parthenon of Athens is the most famous
The Parthenon is a former temple dedicated to Athena, the patron of the people of Athens.
Greece's cities also had public places, called the
agora
(meaning market).

These were open, spacious squares, often in a low part of town with steps leading down to them.
On these steps, the Greeks debated, lectured, judged each other, planned military campaigns, and socialized.

Eventually, the agora also became the focus of commercial activity.


A Roman agora
Greek cities had excellent theaters.
-The aristocracy attended plays and listened to philosophical discourses.

But, for many people, life in a Greek city was miserable.
-Sanitation and health conditions were poor.
-Most of the buildings were completed by slaves.
When the Romans succeeded the Greeks, their empire incorporated not only the Mediterranean, but also a large part of interior Europe and North Africa.

The capital, Rome, was at the top of a
hierarchy of settlements, from small villages
to large cities.

The Romans linked these places with an
extensive transportation network that included hundreds of miles of roads, well-established sea routes, and rivers.
The Romans were excellent at choosing favorable
sites
of cities and for identifying suitable locales for settlements.

The site of a city is its absolute location, often chosen for its advantages in trade or defense, or as a center for religious practice.
For example, the Romans established Lutetia (modern-day Paris) in the area of Gaul.

http://www.paris.culture.fr/en/

The
situation
of a city refers to its position in relation to the surrounding context.

The situation of a city deals with its relative location .

For example, Rome was the center of the Roman Empire.

After that dissolved, it became the center of the Roman Catholic Church.


After Florence and Naples began flourishing, the situation of Rome within Italy shifted.

It no longer was the scientific and economic focal point of the country.
The School of Athens
The Romans were influenced by the Greeks.
-This is evident with their mythology

This can also be seen in the cultural landscape and the
urban morphology
of Roman cities.

The urban morphology of a city is the layout of the city, its physical form and structure.

Next class, I'll talk to you about Edinburgh, which has one of the most interesting urban morphologies I've seen.
Greeks planned their cities in a rectangular grid pattern, and the Romans adopted this plan wherever they could.

The Romans took the Greek acropolis (zone of religion and center of power) and agora (zone of public space and marketplace) and combined them into one zone:
the Forum
.


The Roman Forum
National Monument of Victor Emmanuel - completed in 1935
Many of these places grew into towns, and some, such as Bukhara and Samarqand, became major cities.

In Asia, Chinese styles of city-
building diffused into Korea and
Japan.

Seoul became a full-fledged city by 1200.

Kyoto, Japan's historical capital, grew rapidly after the beginning of the 9th century.
The Silk Route
In West Africa, trading cities developed along the southern margin of the Sahara.

Timbuktu, in Mali, was a major
city
-It was a seat of government, a
university town, a market, and a religious center.


The Americas also had urban growth during Europe's Middle Ages, especially within the Mayan and Aztec empires.

The largest city of these empires was Tenochtitlan, which had nearly 100,000 inhabitants.
Location of Tenochtitlan
Drone photograph of Tenochtitlan
Before 1400, most cities were sited on trade routes in the interiors of continents.

This all changed when what occurred?
When Europeans began trading and colonizing over seas (rather than over land), the
situation
of cities changed.

Explain this...
The situation of cities like Basel (Switzerland) and Xian (China) changed from being crucial nodes on interior trading routes to being peripheral in ocean-oriented trade.
Other cities, sited on coasts, gained prominence.

Bombay (now Mumbai), Madras (now Chennai), Malacca, and Tokyo grew in importance.
The trade networks of European powers brought immense wealth to Europe's medieval cities, including Amsterdam, London, and Lisbon.

Successful merchants built ornate mansions, patronized the arts, participated in city governance, and supported the reconstruction of city centers.


A central square became the focus of the city, fronted by royal, religious, public, and private buildings demonstrating wealth and power.

Streets leading to these central squares formed arteries of commerce, and the beginnings of "downtowns" was created.
Central square in Denmark
Lisbon Town Square
Antwerp Central Square
The
second urban revolution
began with the Industrial Revolution.

Around 1800, western Europe was still overwhelmingly rural.

With the Industrial Revolution, thousands migrated to the cities.
Before the second urban revolution, a second revolution in agriculture occurred.

During the late 17th and early 18th centuries, Europeans made a series of improvements in agriculture.
-Invention of the seed drill, hybrid seeds, and improved livestock breeding practices.
Not all mercantile cities turned into industrial cities.

Many industrial cities grew from small villages or along canal and river routes.

Why? What was the primary determinant of location for early industrial cities?
Proximity to a power source.

For textile manufacturing, industrial cities had to be sited near fresh water sources to power the water loom.

Industrial cities based around iron manufacturing were based near coal and iron ore fields.
-Birmingham in England.
Coal in the UK
With industrialization, cities became unregulated jumbles of activity.

Open spaces became garbage dumps.

Urban dwellers converted elegant housing into overcrowded slums.

Sanitation systems failed, and water supplies were often inadequate and polluted.
The Industrial Revolution changed transportation, too.

The steam engine, powered by coal, pumped water from mines for coal mining.
-It also powered steamships and railroads.

The diffusion of the railroad gave cities that were not near coal fields the chance to industrialize.

The central parts of cities such as London, Paris, and Amsterdam kept their pre-industrial shape.
-But new railroad tracks cut through long-standing neighborhoods outside of those central areas.

Look at pg. 258 in your book.
Workers' housing in the
19th century
The trade area of a city or town is the adjacent region within which its influence is dominant.

See the map on pg. 259
In a particular region, the largest city has the largest trade area.

Let's think of our own region. Our largest city is Sacramento.

Several medium-sized cities trade in smaller areas and are scattered apart from the major city. Examples of these?
Stockton, Lodi, Folsom, Roseville, Davis


Small towns have the grocery stores and other necessities.
-Jackson would fit this category.

Then, the villages may have a cafe or gas station.
-Pine Grove, Pioneer, Ione

Cities and towns in regions go from largest to smallest with decreasing sizes of trade areas.

Therefore, there's a hierarchy of urban places in a region, which is a pattern called the
rank-size rule
.



Sacramento
Stockton - Folsom - Roseville - Davis
Jackson
Pine Grove - Ione
The rank-size rule, created by George Zipf, states that in a model urban hierarchy, the population of a city or town will be inversely proportional to its rank in the hierarchy.

So, if the largest city in a region has 12 million people.
-The second largest will have about 6 million (1/2).
-The third largest city will have 4 million (1/3).
-The fourth largest would have 3 million (1/4).
-The tenth largest would have 1.2 million (1/10).
The rank-size rule is not perfect.

Studies have found that the majority of countries had populations with more even distributions than the rank-size rule would predict.
The rank-size rule does not apply in all countries, especially countries with one dominant city

States will often focus development in one particular city, such as the capital, thereby bolstering that city and its population above the rest of the cities in the state.
This dominant city is called a
primate city
.

It's always disproportionately large and is the most economically influential within the state.

The next largest city in the state being much smaller and much less influential.
Many former colonies have primate cities, as the colonial powers often ruled from a single dominant city.

Primate cities in former colonies include Mexico City and Manila in the Philippines.

Other primate cities are London and Paris.
Let's discuss Wallerstein's core-periphery ideas. What was his theory?

The core-periphery ideas of Wallerstein
can also be applied to cities within a
region.

In our area, the Sacramento area would be the core.

Rural areas beyond the core (including Jackson) would be the periphery.


The world is divided into core, periphery, and semiperiphery countries.

Core countries are highly developed, with good education, access to technology, and to some extent "control" other countries through military, economic, and political power.

Periphery countries are less developed and have a small share of wealth. They often have poor education and health systems, unstable governments, and a lack of technology.
Edinburgh's Urban Morphology
Edinburgh is the capital of Scotland.

Today it has a population of about 465,000 people.

It is located on the southern shore of the Firth of Forth.
Edinburgh is divided into two separate sections: the Old Town and the New Town.

The Old Town came under Scottish control in the 10th century.

Like many medieval towns in Europe, it was small and surrounded by a defensive wall.
By the 17th century, Edinburgh was continuing to grow, but it was still enclosed by its defensive wall.

So, instead of expanding outward, Edinburgh grew up.
Many of these buildings were built during the 19th century, but you still get a feel for the height.
Many people never left the city (there was a cost to come back through the wall), so their small medieval town was their only world.


Buildings were near 11 stories, and were the precursors of skyscrapers.
So, we've discussed rank-size rule and primate cities.

Another theory about cities was created by Walter Christaller.

He came up with
central place theory
.
Christaller wanted to predict where central cities would be located in the urban hierarchy.

He assumed that in the urban hierarchy, central places would be nested, with the largest central place providing the greatest number of functions to most of the region.

Within the trade area of the largest central place, a series of substantial towns would provide functions to several smaller places.
To determine the locations of each central place, Christaller needed to define the goods and services provided and calculate the distance people would willingly travel to acquire them.

Cities, therefore, would be regularly spaced

According to central place theory, each central place has a surrounding region, an exclusive trade area within which it has a monopoly on the sale of certain goods
You would expect the shape of Christaller's trade areas to be circular, but they aren't.

Why?
Circles have to overlap or leave certain areas unserved.

So, Christaller chose hexagons as the shape of each trade area, or
hinterland
.
Geographers have come up with different models to describe cities'
urban morphologies
.

The division of cities into certain regions (zones) for certain purposes (functions) is called
functional zonation
.
The term
zone
is usually preceded by a descriptor that conveys the purpose of that area of the city.

For example, industrial zone or residential zone.

Most models define the key economic zone of the city as the
central business district (CBD)
.
Suburbs
are outlying parts of an urban area.

Most suburbs are residential, but may have other land uses, including schools, shopping malls, and office parks.

Suburbanization is the process by which lands that were previously outside of the urban environment become urbanized
-think of El Dorado Hills
As suburbs grow, urban areas may experience urban sprawl

-This is the unrestricted growth of housing and commercial developments with little concern for urban planning.

Las Vegas' urban sprawl:
These cities with urban sprawl are designed for cars.

Before cars were prevalent, cities grew "up."

Since cars have become common place, cities grow "out."

Compare New York City with Los Angeles.
There are other ways that people have shaped cities:

One is
redlining
. Anyone remember how this caused residential segregation?


Blockbusting
was another technique.


Mortgage lenders would draw red lines around neighborhoods and not give out mortgages there.

This prohibited minorities from owning homes and increasing their wealth.
Another way that cities are redefined is through
gentrification
, which is the rehabilitation of deteriorated houses in low-income neighborhoods.

Governments can promote gentrification through beautification programs and by giving tax breaks to people who buy abandoned or dilapidated housing.

Realtors would sell a house at a low price in a white neighborhood to a black buyer.

The realtors would then solicit white residents of those neighborhoods to sell their homes - claiming that the neighborhood was going downhill since black families were moving in.

Blockbusting helped produce
white flight
, which was the movement of whites from the city to the adjacent suburbs.
San Francisco is seeing gentrification occur in its Mission District.

Luxury condos, organic ice cream stores, and cafes have replaced 99-cent stores and rent-controlled apartments.

The district used to be a working-class Latino neighborhood, but SF has seen incredible increases in property values fueled by the tech industry.

The district now offers studio apartments at $2,700 a month and one bedrooms at $3,800 a month.

How might this cause problems?
New homes in suburbs are often supersized mansions - sometimes called
McMansions
.

These houses have massive amounts of square footage and are built very close to each other.
One other thing to focus on are the different models that have been created to explain city structures.
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