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A Brief Introduction to Biomechanical Exoskeletons

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Mary Larson

on 20 July 2013

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Transcript of A Brief Introduction to Biomechanical Exoskeletons

A Brief Look at
Biomechanical Exoskeletons

What Is a Biomechanical

1950s to 2000s

Hybrid Assisted Limb (HAL)
The Development of
Ekso Bionics

By Mary Larson
EGR 3350
Wright State University
Any Questions?
Technical Definition:
External, robotic support system designed to aid in human activities and aguement human functionality
The Early Years

Pioliomyelitis epidemic
Knee-Ankle-Foot Orthosis
Passive braces
Late 1960s
First active Exoskeletons
safty concerns, tethering
Mihajlo Pupin Institute
Tethered, preprogramed
Legs only
Partial Torso and Legs
Extreme Tasks
Strenuous, Repetitive Motions
Restoring Function
[1] del-Ama AJ, Koutson AD, Moreno JC, de-los-Reyes A, Gil-Agudo A, Pons JL, "Review of Hybrid Exoskeletons to restore gait following spinal cord injury," JRehail Res. Dev. 2012; 49(4):497-514
[2] KAFO Photo Detail . July 17,2013<http://www.orthomedics.us/SiteImages/kafo%20generation.jpg>
[3] Hardiman Photo . July 17,2013<http://davidszondy.com/ephemeral/hardiman2.jpg>
[4] HAL Photo. July 17,2013 <http://www.ideaconnection.com/images/inventions/l_hal-exoskeleton-3964.png>
[5] BLEEX Photo. July 17,2013 <http://berkeley.edu/news/media/releases/2004/03/images/bleex.jpg>
[6] Ekso Bionic Suit Photo. July 17,2013 <http://assets.inhabitat.com/wp-content/blogs.dir/1/files/2012/01/Ekso-Suit-e1325619136834.jpg>
[7]About-Robotic.com. "HAL Robotic Exoskeleton Robot Suits for People." July 17,2013 <http://www.about-robots.com/exoskeleton.html>
[8] Electromyography Patch Detail. July 17, 2013 <http://img.medscape.com/article/745/909/745909-fig2.jpg>
[9]Cyberdyne Website <www.cyberdyne.jp/english/>
[10] Ekso Bionics Website, "Our story timeline," <http://www.eksobionics.com/ourstory>
[11]ExoHiker Photo <http://tapestryuu.org/wp-content/uploads/2011/03/express-exoskeleton-exohiker.jpg>
[12] ExoClimber Photo <http://www.healio.com/~/media/Images/News/Print/O%20and%20P%20Business%20News/2008/11_November/Fs2_3_140_269_59096.jpg>
Important Mile Stones
Elimination of Tethering
HAL- University of Tsukuba
Bear Additional Weight
Natural Gait
Ekso Bionic Suit
Where It's at Now
Control System
Integrated system
Patches sense movement and trigger robotics legs to move
Small movement, larger torque
Nervous connection necessary
Aid for Nurses/Caregivers
Lifting patients
Therapeutic/Rehabilitation Device
Relearning to walk
Utilizes same nerves
Limits: partial spinal cord injuries
HAL's Initial Development
Dr. Sankai, Tsukuba University, 1989
Three years mapping neurons
Four years to first prototype
Problems overcome during prototyping:
22kg to <10kg weight, HAL-3 to HAL-5
Computer tethering
What's in HAL's Future?
Increased Strength
Currently being developed
Increased Availability
Available for rent, production rate of 500 per year
Longer Battery Life
Currently 2 hours 40 mins per charge
2005: The Beginning
Berkely Exoworks:
Dr. Homayoon Kazerooni
Russ Angold
Nathan Harding
Berkeley Robotics and Human Engineering Laborator
200lbs, any rate
steep slopes, stairs
2007 Berkely Exoworks
Berkey Bionics
2008: The HULC is Born
Human Universal Load Carrier (HULC)
Third generation exoskeleton
Designed to aid humans with:
Repetitive actions
Extreme loads
Licensed to Lockheed Martin Cooperation
Military utilization
2010: The Break Through Step
intelligent, bionic exoskelton
Gives para- and quadriplegics the ability to walk
The Current State-of-the-Art Ekso Bionic Suit
Specialized sensor set means no nervous connection is necessary in the legs of the user
Adaptive technology
Weight shift
4 hours of battery life
Full transcript