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A Brief Introduction to Biomechanical Exoskeletons

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by

Mary Larson

on 20 July 2013

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Transcript of A Brief Introduction to Biomechanical Exoskeletons

A Brief Look at
Biomechanical Exoskeletons

What Is a Biomechanical
Exoskeleton?

Development:
1950s to 2000s

Hybrid Assisted Limb (HAL)
The Development of
Ekso Bionics

By Mary Larson
EGR 3350
Wright State University
Any Questions?
Technical Definition:
External, robotic support system designed to aid in human activities and aguement human functionality
The Early Years
1950s

Pioliomyelitis epidemic
Knee-Ankle-Foot Orthosis
Passive braces
Late 1960s
First active Exoskeletons
GE-Hardiman
safty concerns, tethering
Mihajlo Pupin Institute
Tethered, preprogramed
Forms
[1]
Full-body
Legs only
Partial Torso and Legs
Extreme Tasks
Strenuous, Repetitive Motions
Restoring Function
Functions
&
[1] del-Ama AJ, Koutson AD, Moreno JC, de-los-Reyes A, Gil-Agudo A, Pons JL, "Review of Hybrid Exoskeletons to restore gait following spinal cord injury," JRehail Res. Dev. 2012; 49(4):497-514
[2] KAFO Photo Detail . July 17,2013<http://www.orthomedics.us/SiteImages/kafo%20generation.jpg>
[3] Hardiman Photo . July 17,2013<http://davidszondy.com/ephemeral/hardiman2.jpg>
[4] HAL Photo. July 17,2013 <http://www.ideaconnection.com/images/inventions/l_hal-exoskeleton-3964.png>
[5] BLEEX Photo. July 17,2013 <http://berkeley.edu/news/media/releases/2004/03/images/bleex.jpg>
[6] Ekso Bionic Suit Photo. July 17,2013 <http://assets.inhabitat.com/wp-content/blogs.dir/1/files/2012/01/Ekso-Suit-e1325619136834.jpg>
[7]About-Robotic.com. "HAL Robotic Exoskeleton Robot Suits for People." July 17,2013 <http://www.about-robots.com/exoskeleton.html>
[8] Electromyography Patch Detail. July 17, 2013 <http://img.medscape.com/article/745/909/745909-fig2.jpg>
[9]Cyberdyne Website <www.cyberdyne.jp/english/>
[10] Ekso Bionics Website, "Our story timeline," <http://www.eksobionics.com/ourstory>
[11]ExoHiker Photo <http://tapestryuu.org/wp-content/uploads/2011/03/express-exoskeleton-exohiker.jpg>
[12] ExoClimber Photo <http://www.healio.com/~/media/Images/News/Print/O%20and%20P%20Business%20News/2008/11_November/Fs2_3_140_269_59096.jpg>
[2]
[3]
Important Mile Stones
Elimination of Tethering
HAL- University of Tsukuba
Bear Additional Weight
BLEEX
Natural Gait
HAL
Ekso Bionic Suit
Various
[4]
[1]
[5]
[6]
Where It's at Now
Control System
Uses
Integrated system
Electromyography
Patches sense movement and trigger robotics legs to move
Small movement, larger torque
Nervous connection necessary
[7]
Aid for Nurses/Caregivers
Lifting patients
Therapeutic/Rehabilitation Device
Relearning to walk
Utilizes same nerves
Limits: partial spinal cord injuries
HAL's Initial Development
Dr. Sankai, Tsukuba University, 1989
Three years mapping neurons
Four years to first prototype
Problems overcome during prototyping:
22kg to <10kg weight, HAL-3 to HAL-5
Computer tethering
What's in HAL's Future?
Increased Strength
Currently being developed
Increased Availability
Available for rent, production rate of 500 per year
Longer Battery Life
Currently 2 hours 40 mins per charge
2005: The Beginning
Berkely Exoworks:
Dr. Homayoon Kazerooni
Russ Angold
Nathan Harding
Berkeley Robotics and Human Engineering Laborator
Who?
What?
ExoHiker
200lbs, any rate
ExoClimber
steep slopes, stairs
[11]
[12]
[10]
[9]
Citations
2007 Berkely Exoworks
Berkey Bionics
2008: The HULC is Born
Human Universal Load Carrier (HULC)
Third generation exoskeleton
Designed to aid humans with:
Repetitive actions
Extreme loads
Licensed to Lockheed Martin Cooperation
Military utilization
2010: The Break Through Step
eLEGS
Ekso
intelligent, bionic exoskelton
Gives para- and quadriplegics the ability to walk
The Current State-of-the-Art Ekso Bionic Suit
Specialized sensor set means no nervous connection is necessary in the legs of the user
Adaptive technology
Remote
Weight shift
4 hours of battery life
Full transcript