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Atomic History Timeline

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on 11 October 2013

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Transcript of Atomic History Timeline

Atomic History Timeline
c. 4th-5th Century B.C.E.:
He came up with the idea that a smallest particle exists. He called this particle “atomos”. This was the foundation of atomic theory.
c. 4th Century B.C.E.
He was a Greek philosopher who believed that no matter how many times you cut some type of matter in half, you would always have a smaller piece. This contradicted Democritus’s ideas. People believed Aristotle for the next 2,000 years.
Chloe Boyd and Neyha Shankar
1687 A.D.
Issac Newton
Antoine Lavoisier
1805 (discovery published)
John Dalton
He proposed the Law of Multiple Proportions, which led to the Atomic Theory in 1803. He also recognized that atoms of elements exist and that compounds were formed when these atoms joined together. He also developed a relative atomic weight scale, developed the idea of a mole, and made a system of symbols to represent different atoms.
Ludwig Boltzmann
J.J. Thomson
He identified the negatively charged electron by using a cathode ray tube. He thought that the electron was a part of all matter and calculated the electron charge to mass ratio. He proposed the plum pudding model of the atom, where most of the atom is composed of the positive portion (the pudding) and smaller electrons (raisins) are scattered throughout to neutralize it.
Henri Becquerel
Marie Curie
She was inspired by Becquerel to study radioactivity. She and her husband investigated many other materials and discovered two new elements, polonium and radium. Both of these are more radioactive than uranium.
Albert Einstein
Ernest Rutherford
He did a gold-foil experiment. This helped him discover discovered the nuclear atom, which meant that atoms had a positive charged center surrounded by negative charged particles. In 1920, he referred to the hydrogen nucleus as a proton and also discovered the neutron, the third subatomic particle.
Robert Millikan
Neils Bohr
Max Planck
Early 1920's
The Aufbau Principle
This principle means that as protons are added to an atom, electrons are added to the orbitals. It was made by Neils Bohr and Wolfgang Pauli, and it outlines rules about how electrons are organized into shells and subshells around the nucleus. One of these rules is that electrons go into the shells with the lowest possible amount of energy.

Louise de Broglie
Wolfgang Pauli
Erwin Schrödinger
He derived a set of wave functions for electrons. He thought that electrons in orbit would set up waves and using these waves, you could only find a probability of where an electron might be. These probabilities formed regions of space around the nucleus called orbitals, which could be described as electron density clouds. The denser the area, the greater the probability of finding an electron.
Friedrich Hund
Werner Heisenberg
James Chadwick
He collaborated with Rutherford to discover the neutron. This led directly to the discovery of fission. It ultimately led to the development of the atomic bomb.
Newton proposed a logical approach that there are particles that are attracted to each other by forces. He discusses these in his work, Opticks. He argues that these forces are the reasons behind things such as distillation and mixing.

He proposed the Law of Conservation of Mass after experimenting with the process of burning. This shows that matter cannot be created or destroyed. It was the beginning of modern chemistry.
He discovered spontaneous radioactivity. His experiments with the x-ray, which had recently been discovered, led to studies about how light affects uranium salts. He found out by accident that uranium salts spontaneously emit radiation, and this was the start of a new phenomenon- radioactivity.
He discovered the famous equation E=mc2. It means that the amount of energy equals mass times the speed of light squared. It shows that there is an equivalence between mass and energy.
He refined Rutherford’s model. He proposed that electrons orbit the nucleus without losing energy and that they move in fixed orbits at different levels of energy. He also proposed that electrons with low energy move closer to the nucleus and electrons with high energy move farther away from it.
He introduced the concept of quanta. Radiation that is emitted has quanta with specific energies. These are determined by a new constant, the Planck constant.

He introduced two new quantum numbers (numbers that correspond to energy and movement). He also formed the Pauli Principle. This principle showed that no two electrons in an atom could have the exact same set of quantum numbers. This principle applies to the nucleus, too, because protons and neutrons were given quantum numbers.
Developed the uncertainty principle, which dealt with the location of an electron within its wave. He discovered that to locate an electron, you have to shine a wavelength of light with high energy on it that is smaller than the wavelength of the electron. The electron will absorb the energy and change position. Because you can never know the exact position and momentum of an atom, Heisenberg said that we should not think of electrons moving in definite orbits around the nucleus.
He proposed that just like light, electrons could act as particles and waves. Electrons travel as waves and electron beams can be bent as they pass through slits. The waves of electrons orbiting a nucleus have specific wavelengths, energies, and frequencies.
He found a method of using orbitals to determine electron structure. He also created Hund's rules. This was a set of rules about the way electrons fill up orbitals in atoms with more than one electron.
He developed statistical mechanics. This shows how the properties of atoms affect properties of matter. He also created the Boltzmann constant, which relates the amount of energy to the temperature in degrees Kelvin.
He accurately determined the charge of an electron. He proved that this is a constant for all electrons. He also studied movements in gases to support atomic and kinetic theories about matter. Later, he did experiments to extend the ultraviolet spectrum.

Image Citations
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