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Xinhao Wang

on 28 February 2013

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Transcript of Water

URBAN WATER MANAGEMENT PROBLEM LOW IMPACT DEVELOPMENT (LID) GREEN INFRASTRUCTURE (GI) FLOODING CSO STORMWATER Storm water is rainwater and melted snow that runs off streets, lawns, and other sites. In developed areas, impervious surfaces such as pavement and roofs prevent precipitation from naturally soaking into the ground. Instead, the water runs rapidly into storm drains, sewer systems, and drainage ditches. Downstream flooding (下游洪水)
Stream bank erosion (河岸冲蚀)
Increased turbidity (muddiness created by stirred up sediment) from erosion (浊度增加)
Habitat destruction (生境破坏)
Changes in the stream flow hydrograph (a graph that displays the flow rate of a stream over a period of time) (河川流量过程变化)
Combined sewer overflows (合流污水外溢)
Infrastructure damage (基础设施破坏)
Contaminated streams, rivers, and coastal water (水体污染) The Result of Storm Water New York under water
After Superstore Sandy Storm water in Beijing, 2012 REGULATED SOLUTION Regulated Solutions
Urban Stormwater Best Management Practice (BMP)

Wet Weather Green Infrastructure (GI )

Low Impact Development(LID)

Smart Growth Unregulated Strategies Clean Water Act 1972 COMBINED SEWER SYSTEMS SEPARATE SANITARY & STORMWATER
SEWER SYSTEMS 1855, CSS in U.S. * 1892,
There were only 27 U.S. cities with wastewater treatment works by 1892, most of them "treating" wastewater through land application.
* 2002,
16,000 publicly owned wastewater
treatment plants Prior 19th Century The dots on the map mark cities across U.S. that use combined sewer systems to transport wastewater to their treatment facilities. A combined sewer system is a cheap way to manage both sanitary water sources and runoff water

* 772 Communities in 32 states
* 40 million people During heavy rainstorm, the water level in the sewage pipes becomes so high that it will often overflow sending raw sewage on the streets and into the creeks and rivers TYPICAL “REGULATOR”:
DRY WEATHER NORMAL OPERATION In the first half of the 20th century,
states and local not allowed to construct the new combined sewer systems in U.S. The volume of combined sewer overflows discharged nationwide:
850 billion gallons per year. CSO in New York City * CSO discharges can include bacteria and other pathogens, toxic chemicals, and debris.

* Nitrates, phosphates, potassium, heavy metals, petroleum products, anti-freeze, road salts The Clean Water Act (1972 amendments):
provide the statutory basis for the NPDES permit program and the basic structure for regulating the discharge of pollutants from point sources to waters of the United States. Section 402 of the CWA specifically required EPA to develop and implement the NPDES program. Regulated Stormwater Quality Control Phase I(1987): regulates storm water discharges from medium and large MS4s, construction activities of 5 acres or larger (or less than 5 acres if part of a common plan of development or sale), and industrial activities.

Phase II(1990):extends the regulations to storm water discharges from small MS4s, and construction activities that disturb equal to or greater than 1 acre of land . Phase II also revises the original no exposure provision to be a conditional exclusion applicable to all categories of industrial activity (except construction activity) when there is no exposure of industrial materials and activities to storm water. National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) 雨洪管理条例

新开发区的暴雨洪水洪峰流量必须保持在开发前 的水平;
降低纳税额鼓励政策. Regulated-Stormwater Flow Control Municipal Separate Storm Sewer System (MS4) Program (2007)
The National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) Municipal Separate Storm Sewer System (MS4) Program Evaluation Guidance (Guidance) is intended to assist State and NPDES permitting authority staff to:
Assess the compliance and effectiveness of Phase I and Phase II MS4 programs;
Develop Phase II MS4 stormwater management programs (SWMPs);
Assess pollutants of concern;
Provide technical assistance. MS4 Program This is an Act of Congress passed in 1972 to encourage coastal states to develop and implement coastal zone management plans (CZMPs).
This act was established as a United States National policy to preserve, protect, develop, and where possible,
restore or enhance, the resources of the Nation's coastal zone for this and succeeding generations. Coastal Zone Management ACT 1972 Involved Government Body *Environmental Protection Agency (EPA): maintaining and enforcing national standards under a variety of environmental laws
*Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA): to coordinate the response to a disaster that has occurred in the United States
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration
(N*OAA): Provide data and forecasts for weather and water cycle events, including storms, droughts, and floods
*U.S Army Corps of Engineers: is a U. S. federal agency that associated with dams, canals and flood protection in the United States BEST MANAGEMENT PRACTICE Federal, State and local regulatory requirements;

State or local community goals to mitigate the environmental
impacts associated with urban runoff;

Special local area needs such as trout or salmon fisheries
protection, water supply watershed protection,
ground water protection and other issues of local importance Goals and Objectives: Source Control BMPs
Treatment Control BMPs BMP Types http://stormwater.montana.edu/ http://cfpub.epa.gov/npdes/stormwater/menuofbmps/menu.cfm Source Control BMPs Source Control BMP Best Management Practices (BMPs) result from policy changes *Incentives
Property Tax Reduction
Reduced Permit Processing Time
Floor Area Ratio Bonus

*Zero Discharge Reduction of Stormwater in some communities is assessed as a Value Tax on the property. If the builder designs systems to reduce stormwater runoff, the property tax is reduced.

Examples: Newport- News, VA. and the Portland, OR, Clean Rivers Act. Reduction Incentives: Tax Reduction In other communities, the incentive is reduced time to get a permit. Chicago will cut the time in half to get a building permit if the building design has a green roof. Incentives: Permit Processing Time Floor Area Ratio Bonus refers to a formula that allows builders to increase their floor area ratio in exchange for either a greenroof or porous pavement. The square footage permitted for the exchange depends on the particular zoning code. Examples are found in Portland, OR, and Minneapolis, MN, zoning codes. Incentives: Floor Area Ratio Bonus Zero stormwater discharge from a 14-acre site:
Dramatic decrease in the amount of impervious surfaces
Various native landscaping strategies
Water features, including two ponds and a rooftop rainwater collection system
Rainwater channeled into a 38,000-gallon underground cistern, where it is filtered, chlorinated and then used in the building's urinals and water closets
Savings of close to 300,000 gallons of water each year Zero Discharge BMPs focus on water quality problems caused by increased impervious surfaces from land development.
BMPs are designed to reduce stormwater volume, peak flows, and/or nonpoint source pollution through evapotranspiration, infiltration, detention, and filtration or biological and chemical actions

The analysis of Best Management Practices (BMPs) performance data is often complex and challenging.
there is still a great need for focused research in certain areas, particularly for newer and innovative structural BMP types, as well as non-structural BMPs. Benefits and Limitations * Established the basic structure for regulating pollutants discharges into the waters of the United States

* Gave EPA the authority to implement

* Maintained existing requirements to set water quality standards

* Funded the construction of sewage treatment plants under the construction grants program

* Recognized the need for planning to address the critical problems posed by nonpoint source pollution. * It provides guidance to municipalities and State and Federal permitting authorities on how to meet the Clean Water Act's pollution control goals as flexibly and cost-effectively as possible.
* Clear levels of control to meet health and environmental objectives
* Flexibility to consider the site-specific nature of CSOs and find the most cost-effective way to control them
* Phased implementation of CSO controls to accommodate a community's financial capability
* Review and revision of water quality standards during the development of CSO control plans to reflect the site-specific wet weather impacts of CSOs Combined Sewer Overflow Control Polity 1994 * Combined Sewer Overflows Nine Minimum Controls 1997

* Proper operation and regular maintenance programs for the sewer system and the CSOs

* Maximum use of the collection system for storage

* Review and modification of pretreatment requirements to assure CSO impacts are minimized

* Maximization of flow to the publicly owned treatment works for treatment

* Prohibition of CSOs during dry weather

* Control of solid and floatable materials in CSOs

* Pollution prevention

* Public notification to ensure that the public receives adequate notification of CSO occurrences and CSO impacts

* Monitoring to effectively characterize CSO impacts and the efficacy of CSO controls * Combined Sewer Overflows Elements of a Long Term Control Plan 1995

* Characterization, monitoring, and modeling of the combined sewer system

* Public participation

* Consideration of sensitive areas

* Evaluation of alternatives to meet CWA requirements using either the "presumption approach" or the "demonstration approach"

* Cost/performance considerations

* Operational plan

* Maximizing treatment at the existing POTW treatment plant

* Implementation schedule

* Post-construction compliance monitoring program Low Impact Development (LID) is a site design strategy with a goal of maintaining or replicating the pre-development hydrologic regime through the use of design techniques to create a functionally equivalent hydrologic landscape. What is LID An expanded site assessment that integrates data with hydrologic significance into land suitability analysis, and 土壤水文
A complementary subdivision design based on principles of conservation subdivision design 保护性开发原则 Low impact development LID Practice Bioretention(生物滞留)
Grass Swales(沼泽地)
Vegetated Roof Covers(绿色屋顶系统)
Permeable Pavement(渗透性路面)
Other LID Strategies 雨 http://www.jmendell.com/images/warrenhouse.jpg n Kentucky Sanitation District No. 1
www.sd1.org A shallow depression that collects water and permits its gradual absorption into the ground Bio-Retention Swale Ford Motor Company’s Rouge Plant in Dearborn, MI is the second largest greenroof, at 10 acres http://www.greenroofs.com/projects/pview.php?id=12 Carrabba’s in Greensboro, NC
http://www.greenroofs.com/exclusives.htm Vegetated Roofs in the U.S. Reduce the runoff减少径流
Minimize development “foot print” and alternations to the natural features最小变化
Reduce air, sound & water pollution减少污染
Conserve water and energy with appropriate building materials, technology, and climatologically sensitive design 节约水、能
Minimize facility maintenance最大限度地减少维护 Environmental Benefits Study watershed EXAMPLE Marketing benefits: higher house price
Resident\homebuyer benefits: Cost saving of landscaping maintenance: $3,395 Economic Benefits Resident\homebuyer benefits
5 acres more natural open space
Recreation opportunities
Community activities & social interaction Quality of Life Benefits Green infrastructure refers to the “interconnected network of natural areas and other open spaces that conserves natural ecosystem values and functions, sustains clean air and water, and provides a wide array of benefits to people and wildlife”

A green infrastructure network consists of riparian areas, floodplains, aquifer recharge zones, wetlands, forested areas and areas that provide refuge for wildlife habitats. Steep slopes contributing to erosion should also be conserved, protected, and otherwise stabilized Green Infrastructure (GI) By retaining rainfall from small storms, green infrastructure reduces stormwater discharges. Lower discharge volumes translate into reduced combined sewer overflows and lower pollutant loads. Green infrastructure also treats stormwater that is not retained. Water Quality Conventional stormwater infrastructure quickly drains stormwater to rivers and streams, increasing peak flows and flood risk. Green infrastructure can mitigate flood risk by slowing and reducing stormwater discharges Flooding Rainwater harvesting and infiltration-based practices increase the efficiency of our water supply system. Water collected in rainwater harvesting systems can be used for outdoor irrigation and some indoor uses and can significantly reduce municipal water use. Water infiltrated into the soil can recharge groundwater, an important source of water in the United States. Water Supply Developers often experience lower capital costs from green infrastructure . These savings derive from lower costs for site grading, paving, and landscaping, and smaller or eliminated piping and detention facilities.

In cities with combined sewer systems, green infrastructure controls may cost less than conventional controls, and green-gray approaches can reduce public expenditures on stormwater infrastructure. Private and Public Cost Savings * water quality and quantity benefits
* effectively counteracts urban heat island
* shade and insulate buildings from wide temperature swings, decreasing the energy assumption
* improves air quality as vegetation absorbs gaseous air pollutants and adsorbs particulates.
* increase property values Benefits of Green Infrastructure A rain garden acts like a native
forest by collecting, absorbing, and
filtering stormwater runoff from roof tops,
driveways, patios, and other areas that
don’t allow water to soak in. Rain gardens
are simply shallow depressions that:
* Can be shaped and sized to fit your yard.
* Are constructed with soil mixes that allow
* Water to soak in rapidly and support
* Healthy plant growth.
* Can be landscaped with a variety of plants to fit the surroundings. Example-Rain Garden Case Study-Hamilton County Study Area – Cincinnati Metropolitan Area 0 – No data
1 – Water
2 – Cropland
3 – Woodland
4 – Wetlands
5 – Urban Projected Observed
2001 Building A Cellular Automata Model Case Study GI Develops land more efficient Higher edge density
Meters per hectare More patches Landscape Larger LSI values – more disaggregated Smaller patch size GI leads to more diversified landscape GI Avoids Built-Up in the Center What is Smart Growth?

"Smart growth" covers a range of development and conservation strategies that help protect our natural environment and make our communities more attractive, economically stronger, and more socially diverse.
Different states, cities, and communities define Smart Growth differently, but the common themes are less sprawl, greater efficiency of public services through targeting state infrastructure investment to existing communities, incentive for the private sector to invest in urban areas, improved development design, and a balance between economic growth and environmental quality. Smart Growth Mix land uses
Take advantage of compact building design
Create a range of housing opportunities and choices
Create walkable neighborhoods
Foster distinctive, attractive communities with a strong sense of place
Preserve open space, farmland, natural beauty, and critical environmental areas
the National Recreation and Park Association recommends that urban areas provide 5 acres of open green space for every 1000 residents
counteract increase in impervious surface
Strengthen and direct development towards existing communities
Provide a variety of transportation choices
Make development decisions predictable, fair, and cost effective
Encourage community and stakeholder collaboration in development decisions Ten Principles for Smart Growth The EPA smart growth program:
Conducts research
Publishes reports and other publications
Showcases outstanding communities
Works with communities through grants and technical assistance
Brings together diverse interests to encourage better growth and development EPA and Smart Growth SMART GROWTH In 1993, a group of architect formed the Congress for the New Urbanism, based on a set of guidelines known as the Ahwahnee Principles. The model for the New Urbanism is the traditional village, which features:
a mix of commercial and residential space within walking distance
a human scale of buildings
a manageable pace
a clear edge between built-up areas and the countryside or open space
density, with houses close together
parks, sidewalks, and squares for public places
New Urbanism projects are known as traditional neighborhood developments (TNDs). Examples of Smart Growth Celebration, Florida:
too nostalgic
unresponsive to market needs
developers chose to pay a certain sum in exchange for omitting affordable housing Examples of Smart Growth Eighth & Pearl, Boulder, Colorado: This inner courtyard is located above the parking structure. It provides semi-private open space for residents and office workers. Examples of Smart Growth Highlands' Garden Village, Denver, Colorado: A variety of homes and apartments are located close together in Highlands' Garden Village. Parks and play lots allow for smaller lots, increasing the amount of housing available. Examples of Smart Growth Abacoa, Jupiter, Florida: Abacoa's stormwater run-off is managed within the greenway system. The higher density homes allow the developers to preserve more open space. Examples of Smart Growth Case Study-Improved Zoning Codes Brentwood Plaza September 2005, after redevelopment Brentwood Plaza July 2003, prior to redevelopment Zoning Can Make a Difference Familiarize yourself with stormwater BMPs (in particular, source control BMPs)

Read through your code carefully

Look for language that is limiting

Encourage the use of BMPs when reviewing development applications Zoning ordinances should not prohibit the use of BMPs Residential Development Permitting the use of shared driveways
Setting maximum lot coverage requirements
Modify street design
Increase setbacks from sensitive areas
Considering the use of Planned Unit Developments (PUD’s) Residential Development
Changes to Consider: Reduces amount of pavement

Reduces stormwater runoff

Reduces curb-cuts onto roadway system Allow Shared Driveways 3-5.16 Pavement in Required Front Yards of Residential Uses

The impervious surface of the required front yard shall not exceed thirty percent (30%), except for lots having a width of fifty (50)feet or less, which shall not exceed thirty-five percent (35%).
(Hamilton County Zoning Code, 2005) Establish Maximum Lot Coverage Requirements Allow streets without curbs

Reconsider the use of typical piped storm system within streets

Encourage medians with swales to channel and absorb stormwater

Encourage Alternative Cul-de-Sacs
Modify Street Designs Modify Street Designs Modify Street Design: Median Swales Modify Street Designs: Alternative Cul-de-Sacs Summit County, OH Zoning Code, 2002 937.05 C. Widths of Setbacks Increase Setbacks from Sensitive Areas An alternative to conventional subdivision design

Encourages clustering to protect environmentally sensitive areas

Allows for innovative infill projects

Allows development standards to be relaxed for better site design, land use relationships, and conservation of natural resources. Planned Unit Development (PUD) Non-Residential Development Require landscaping for commercial development

Require additional landscaping when minimum parking requirements exceeded

Allow for reduced depth of parking stalls

Establish Maximum parking space limits
Create more flexible parking requirements

Allow shadow parking

Allow shared parking

Allow alternative pavement products Non- Residential Development
Changes to Consider Increase required % of landscaping in interior of parking lots

Increase setbacks and open space requirements

Require landscaping on road frontage Require Landscaping for Commercial Developments The minimum number of trees and shrubs for interior landscaping areas shall be calculated as follows:

Required parking: 1 tree & 3 shrubs per 15 parking spaces or fraction thereof.

Parking in excess of code requirement: 2 trees & 6 shrubs per 15 parking spaces or fraction thereof. Require Additional Landscaping when parking space requirements exceeded When a parking space or spaces abut a landscaped area, grassy strip, or yard, a maximum of two feet of the overall length (20 SF) of
any such space or
spaces may extend
into the landscaped
area, grassy strip or
yard.” Reduce Dimension of Parking Spaces “…minimum 4 spaces, maximum 6.5 spaces for each 1,000 SF of retail building.” Establish Maximum Parking Limits Create Flexible Parking Standards Shadow Parking:

A portion of the required spaces may remain landscaped and unpaved or paved with pervious pavers provided that the parking and unpaved areas currently is deemed unrequired. Permit Shadow Parking “Shared parking is encouraged and permitted if the multiple uses that the shared parking will benefit can cooperatively establish and operate the facilities.” Parking Peaks Shared Parking Alternative Pavement Products Population Served:
850,000 in Hamilton County, Ohio
220,000 connections MSDGC --- Background * Aging infrastructure and CSOs
* Hamilton County is one of the top 5 locations in the nation for urban CSOs. Overflows occur as many as 105 times a year at some locations.
* Every year, about 11 billion gallons of raw sewage - mixed with stormwater - overflows from our sewers into local waterways and backs up into basements. MSDGC – Challenge The Consent Decree with the U.S. EPA, the Ohio EPA, and ORSANCO (the Regulators) mandates that MSD:
Capture, treat, or remove at least 85% of the 11 billion gallons of annual overflows from combined sewers,
Eliminate all overflows from sanitary only sewers (about 100 million gallons annually) Regional Solutions: Project Groundwork * Conveyance and Storage: 1.treatment plant 2. underground storage tunnel * Product Control: 1. update treatment plant 2. deal with the waste water before it flow into watershed A Triple Bottom Line (TBL) Evaluation MSD can do more than just “fix a sewer;” MSD is focusing on watersheds wit hin the Lower Mill Creek that experience high volumes of combined sewer overflows (CSOs).

7.6 BG annual CSO volume Focus on the Lower Mill Creek Watershed Default Solution: Deep Tunnel
$224 million
Estimated cost (in 2006)
$1,100 per MG of treatment
Estimated operations and maintenan ce costs
547,800 megawatts
Estimated power demand of pumping 2 Billion Gallons over 10 years
377,739 metric tons
Estimated CO2 emissions from pumping 2 Billion Gallons over 10 years Alternative MSD Sustainable infrastructure Profile WWIP Current Profile Great Cincinnati
River and water --- basin
 These evaluations identify and analyze the relationships among the environment, infrastructure, the economy, transportation, communities and neighborhoods, and other components. 

* To gain a holistic understanding of existing conditions in priority watersheds;
* To identify sustainable infrastructure opportunities, and integrate these projects into a cohesive watershed-specific plan that balances project cost with achieved benefits; and
* To provide optimized gray/green solutions that effectively achieve CSO reduction goals. 31 miles of natural conveyance to Mill Creek
55 miles of combined sewers to CSO#5
1.7 BG overflow volume Lick Run Watershed --- Lick Run CSO #5: MSD’s largest overflow Lick Run Watershed --- Lick Run CSO #5: MSD’s largest overflow control stormwater at the “source.” Lick Run Watershed --- Lick Run CSO #5: MSD’s largest overflow * Separated Storm Sewers
* Natural Conveyance & Detention
* Structural BMPs
* Enabled Impact Projects
* Urban waterway * Natural Stream
* Enhanced Waterway
* Designed Waterway
* Structured Waterway
* Channelized Waterway
* Stream in Storm Sewer Spectrum of Waterway Character * Detention
* Downspout Disconnection
* Reforestation Existing Conditions in South Fairmount: Underground Utilities Proposed Hybrid Conveyance System Urban Waterway Zones Economic Development / Flood Reduction Arcadia Creek, Kalamazoo, Michigan Other Example Creation of a Park Amenity Cow Creek, Hutchinson, Kansas Economic Development / Ecological Restoration Thornton Creek, Seattle, Washington CWA for CSO Combined Sewer Overflows Elements of a Long Term Control Plan 1995 Combined Sewer Overflows Nine Minimum Controls 1997 Partial Interim Decree 2002
Primarily related to Sanitary Sewer Overflows in Separate Sewer System Global Consent Decree 2003
Primarily related to CSOs, Treatment Plant Issues, and Development and Implementation of “Wet Weather Plan” Consent Decree Treatment Control BMP 1992 Observed Projected METROPOLITAN SEWER DISTRICT (MSD) * Source Control: 1.separate sewer 2. retention ponds 3. control storm water Alternative MSD Sustainable infrastructure Profile WWIP Current Profile Aging infrastructure and CSOs

Hamilton County is one of the top 5 locations in the nation for urban CSOs. Overflows occur as many as 105 times a year at some locations.

Every year, about 11 billion gallons of raw sewage - mixed with stormwater - overflows from our sewers into local waterways and backs up into basements.
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