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Blindness & Deaf Blindness

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Jessi Fallen

on 29 September 2012

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Transcript of Blindness & Deaf Blindness

Blindness & Deaf Blindness -Independent Living
Accessible Pedestrian Signals
Raised dome detectable warnings
-Many adults with visual impairment are unemployed
-Those who do work are over qualified Transition to Adulthood Cortical Visual Impairment (CVI)
Damage to parts in brain responsible for vision

Retinopathy of Prematurity (ROP)
Abnormal growth of blood vessels which causes the retina to detach

Optic Nerve Hypoplasia (ONH)
Underdevelopment of optic nerve

Retinitis Pigmentosa
Hereditary condition resulting in degeneration of the retina
Tunnel vision & Night Blindness

Cross eyed

Rapid involuntary eye movements causing dizziness & nausea Causes of Blindness Errors in Refraction
Bending of the light rays as the pass through the various structures of the eye
Myopia, Hyperopia, Astigmatism

Damage to the optic nerve
Often no symptoms

Clouding of the lens
Congenital cataracts

Diabetic Retinopathy
A result from interference with the blood supply to the retina Causes of Blindness -You have visual acuity of 20/200 or less in the better eye even with correction
20/200 means a person sees at 20ft what a person with normal vision sees at 200ft
-Or a field vision so narrow that its widest diameter subtends an angular distance no greater than 20 degrees
-Low Vision/ Partially Sighted
20/70 to 20/200 If you are legally blind… Genetic/ Chromosomal
CHARGE Syndrome
Usher Syndrome
Down Syndrome
Rubella/ German Measles
Congenital Cytomegalovirus
Post Natal
TBIs Causes of Deaf Blindness Definition of blindness combined with
Chronic hearing impairment so severe that most speech cannot be understood with optimum amplification
OR Deaf Blindness can be determined through functional and performance assessment to have severe hearing and visual disability Definition -One of the most challenging of all multiple disabilities

-Quality of life depends on
Quality and intensity of instruction received
Degree/type or visual and/or auditory impairment
Other disabilities and medical conditions Deaf Blindness Using Remaining Sight
Large Print books

Listening Skills

O & M Training
Long Cane
Guide Dogs
Tactile Maps
Human Guides
Educational Considerations -Language Development
-Intellectual Ability
-Academic Achievement
-Orientation and Mobility (O & M)
Sense of where you are and how you navigate/ negotiate your surroundings
-Sequential Route (A to C by way of B)
-Cognitive Mapping (A directly to C, aware of relation to B)
-Obstacle Sense & Doppler Effect Psychological & Behavioral Characteristics Visual
Eyes don’t line up
One eye crossed or looks out
Eyelids are red-rimmed, crusted, or swollen
Watery or red eyes

Rubbing eyes a lot
Closes/covers one eye
Tilts head
Holds objects close to eyes
Blinks more than usual
Squints or frowns

“my eyes are itchy”
“I can’t see very well”
“I see double” Identifying Visual Impairment One tenth as prevalent in school age children as in adults
Primarily an adult disability
Statistics indicate a lesser commonness in children due to schools reporting the “primary” condition Prevalence -How do you read? Is braille necessary?
Braille: A system of raised dots by which people who are blind read with their fingertips
-People with low vision can also use braille as an accompaniment to visual reading Educational Definition Most people who are blind… -Are protective of their independence
-Wish to be treated like everyone else
-Realize sight is not the only sense that allows people to socialize
-Can actually see! -3rd Most feared condition
-Usually visible
-Importance of eye contact
-Emotional Expression
-Traditional concept of beauty Why So Uncomfortable?? Braille
-Literary, Nemeth Code & Unified English Braille
-Perkins Brailler
-Slate and Stylus Educational Considerations -Snellen Chart
-Functional Vision Assessment Identifying Visual Impairment Social Adjustment

“Nearly every time I smile, I am conscious of it…Why is that? It must be because there is no reinforcement. There is no returning smile…Most smiling is responsive. You smile spontaneously when you receive a smile. For me it is like sending dead letters. Have they been received, acknowledged? Was I even smiling in the right direction? (Hull, 1997, P. 30)” Psychological & Behavioral Characteristics Problems Accessing information
Problems Communicating
Problems Navigating the environment Psychological & Behavioral Characteristics Direct Teaching
Structured, predictable routines
Adapted Signs
Touch Cues
O & M training Educational Considerations
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