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16.2 Conquest and Colonies
Transcript of 16.2 Conquest and Colonies
Spanish Build an Empire
Spain first to successfully settle in the Americas
Eventually conquered native empires, the Aztecs and Incas
First areas settled by Spanish, Caribbean islands, Hispaniola, Cuba
Columbus hoped to find gold, did not
Spanish introduced encomienda system there
Colonist given land and Native Americans to work the land
Required to teach native workers about Christianity
Disastrous system for Native Americans
Mistreatment, overwork took toll on population
Europeans spread new diseases
Conquest of Mexico
Hernán Cortés led expedition to Mexico, conquered Aztecs
Cortés a conquistador, military leader who fought against Native Americans
Let's take a look at the reading you had from last night.
Moctezuma II, Aztec emperor at time of Spanish arrival in Mexico
Aztecs powerful, ruled much of Mexico; unpopular with those they conquered
Cortés joined by thousands of those who wanted to defeat Aztecs
Advantages of Cortes
In addition to Native American allies, Cortés had metal weapons, heavy armor, guns, horses, —animals never seen before in Americas
Disease (smalllpox) also swept through Aztec Empire - killed thousands
November 8, 1519, Cortés, army entered Tenochtitlán, Aztec capital
Fighting broke out because of a misunderstanding - Cortes' men attacked
Cortés eventually took city
Defeated entire Aztec empire
Conquest of Peru
1532, new ruler, Atahualpa, agreed to meet with Spanish
Pizarro demanded he accept Christianity, hand over empire to Spain
Spanish killed Atahualpa, destroyed Inca army, took over empire
A more humorous look
Spanish king chose officials,
, to govern American holdings
Spanish colonial economy based on gold, silver mining, farming
Spanish drafted Native Americans for labor in mines, on farms
Beginnings of Slavery
Disease, mistreatment took toll on native population
Native population dropped by more than 90% from an estimated 50 million to only 4 million
One reformer, Bartolomé de Las Casas recommended replacing Native Americans as laborers with imported African slaves
Slave labor soon became common practice in Americas
Portuguese in Brazil
Portuguese built an empire in the Americas
Because of treaty, their empire was not as large as the Spanish one
1494, Treaty of Tordesillas drew imaginary line through Atlantic Ocean
Everything west, including most of then-undiscovered Americas, would belong to Spain
Everything to east would be Portuguese
Only Brazil remained as Portuguese colony
Heavy Brazilian jungles made mining, farming difficult
Portuguese in no hurry to settle
1530s, colonists slowly moved in, mostly along Atlantic coast
Established huge farming estates, as in Spanish lands
First used Native American, then African slave, labor to work on farms
British French Conflict
English ran into conflict with French settlers in Americas
Mid-1700s, English colonists attempted to settle in French territory, upper Ohio River valley; tension in region grew; war broke out, 1754
French and Indian War
Both had Native American allies; English called it French and Indian War
British won the war and wanted to make the colonists pay for it.......
Eventually French surrendered, yielded Canada, all French territory east of Mississippi
War costly for British; king tried to place costs of war on colonists
Led to resentment, which eventually brought about American Revolution
-Identify how the Spanish built an empire in the Americas
-Explain the impact on the indeginous people and the introduction of enlaved persons from Africa
Explain how the French, Dutch, and English founded their colonies were different than the Spanish colonies.
French and Dutch were most interested in trade and worked with the Native American tribes more as partners
English often distrusted Native Americans and the working relationship was different.
As you look back at what you've read and we have covered, write for two minutes about these new conquerors and colonists (Spanish, Portuguese, French, and English) changed the world.