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Events in the History of Evolutionary Thought
Transcript of Events in the History of Evolutionary Thought
War Britain's American colonies declare themselves independent. The colonists become warred against the British as a result. Washington George Washington became the United State's first president and the "Father of the U.S." after guiding the Continental army to victory. 1789 1794 Zoonomia The Louisiana
Purchase President Thomas Jefferson buys the land across the Mississippi River from France. 1803 1809 Lamarck Cuvier 1817 Lyell 1830 Beagle Voyage 1831-1836 1846 Lord Kelvin Origin of
Species 1859 1861-1865 Civil War A civil war within the United States erupts between the Union and the Confederacy partially over the issue of slavery. The mostly abolitionist North won, and slavery was abolished in the U.S. Wallace 1859 Mendel Descent of Man Horse Fossils NeoDarwinism First Flight Orville and Wilbur Wright constructed and flew the first gas-powered airplane. The longest flight lasted 59 seconds. World War I A global war against two powerful groups- the Allies and the Central Powers. 1865 1871 1876 1896 1903 1914-1918 The Great Depression 1929-1939 An economic downfall in the U.S. occurred that caused many to suffer starvation, unemployment, and homelessness. 1940 DDT 1945 DNA 1953 Vietnam War 1959-1975 Humans & Apes 1967 DNA Codes Human Genome 9/11 Terrorist Attacks 2001 By: Linnaeus (aka Carl von Linne) wanted to classify all life on Earth. He created a system dividing life into kingdoms , classes, orders, genera, and species. From this 5 year, around-the-world voyage, Charles Darwin's interests in science and ideas about evolution increased. This was a result of fossils and creatures he discovered. Comte De Buffon thought that living things evolve based on natural laws. He implied that humans and apes are related and further more that everything has descended from on ancestor. William Thomson estimates that the Earth is approximately 20-400 million years old, because that's how long it would take for the molten mass to cool. NeoDarwinism showed that random genetic
mutations in traits are passed to offspring
by natural selection. Erasmus Darwin, a physician, botanist and poet, suggested that warm blooded animals descended from one creature in his book "Zoonomia." He is often referred to as the first evolutionist, but never actually worked out a theory. Darwin created the book titled "Origin of Species" that contained evidence supporting his ideas of evolution. In it he explains natural selection. Rapid evolution occurs in insects resistant to DDT. This same concept happens with bacteria and viruses. Wallace uses the idea of natural selection to explain how evolution occurs. His findings served as competition to Darwin. Lamarck was a French naturalist who thought that living things evolve to become more complex over time. He thought that "vital forces" helped animals to adapt to their environments. The double-helix structure helps scientists understand the connection of and between genes. This was a very important event in the 20th century. In a paper, Mendel explains that traits are passed down and inherited through units, which will be later identified as genes. Scientists find that humans and African apes have similar DNA coding. African apes are not as similar to orangutans as humans. Darwin creates a bew book named "Descent of Man". This includes his opinions on evolution and the importance of "sexual selection". Cuvier was another French naturalist who explained fossils by saying that a sequence of floods and earthquakes killed off some animals. He thought that modern creatures were too distinct to evolve naturally. Lyell believed that slow processes help to explain Earth's geology. He became Darwin's mentor and Darwin later used Lyell's ideas when developing the theory of evolution. The government of South Vietnam, with the help of the United States and other anti-communist countries, tried to overcome North Vietnam. Micayla Welsh Rock dating techniques using radioactive elements shows ages of old objects. This process showed that the Earth is 4.3 billion years old. New technology allows for cheaper analysis of the DNA sequencing. Scientists can now observe changes through time of DNA. Alex Gunther Katie Pearce & Radioactivity Period 4
Honors Biology Humans share genes with many other species on Earth. New theories of evolution are created. Thomas Huxley traveled to the U.S. to lecture and visits Othniel Charles Marsh, a fossil hunter. Marsh discovered ancient horse fossils that help them to create an idea as to the evolution of the horse from a four toed ancestor (named Eohippus). 1815 Waterloo Napoleon's defeat at Waterloo. 1845-1848 The Potato Famine The famine, also called The Great Hunger, ravished through Ireland, killing 1.5 million people. Olympics The Olympics are restored in Athens. A series of planned attacks on the United States occur. The hijackers of the planes were members of al-Qaeda. Key: Individuals or events that influenced Darwin Individuals or events that could have helped Darwin had he known about them light blue: Events in the History of Evolutionary Thought (above) dark grey: Events in World History (below) 1896 1990