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summarizing and notetaking
Transcript of summarizing and notetaking
Anderson & Hidi found the following three generalizations on summarizing:
1. To effectively summarize, students must delete some information, substitute some information, and keep some information.
2. To effectively delete, substitute and keep information, students must analyze the information at a fairly deep level.
3. Being aware of the explicit structure of information is an aid to summarizing information.
What strategies do students need for summarizing?
rule based strategy:
Delete trivial material that is unnecessary to understanding
delete redundant material
Substitute terms for lists
example: flowers for "daisies, tulips and roses"
Select a topic sentence, or invent one if it is missing.
=A series of questions that the teacher provides to students designed to highlight the critical elements for specific types of information.
1. Narrative frame
Commonly found in fiction.
2. the topic-restriction-illustration frame:
(figure 3.5 P 37)
this pattern is commonly found in expository material.
3. the definition frame
(figure 3.6 page 38)
'describes a particular concept and identify subordinate concepts.
4. Argumentation frame
contains information designed to support a claim with the following elements:
5. Problem solution frame:
introduces a problem and then identifies one or more solutions to the problem.
(figure 3.8 page 40)
6. Conversation frame:
a verbal interchange between two or more people. It contains:
one of the best researched strategies available to teachers (Rosenshine & Meister, 1994).
It has four components:
Figure 3.10 page 43
Research on note taking:
1. Verbatim note taking is the least effective way to take notes.
don't try to record everything you hear
2. Notes should be considered a work in progress
3. Notes should be used as study guides for tests.
4. The more notes that are taken, the better.
Classroom practice in note taking:
Teacher-prepared notes see figure 3.12 page 45
Formats for notes:
informal outline (figure 3.13 page 46)
Webbing (figure 3.14 page 47)
see figure 3.15 page 48