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Hetalia History: An accurate portrayal!
Transcript of Hetalia History: An accurate portrayal!
massive ammounts of
money to the allied nations. APH: reasons for WW1 Germany meets italy After world war one the leauge of nations was created. They cant get alone....at all.... Armenian Genocide :- The systematic killing of nearly 1-1.5 million Armenian Christians by the Muslim Turks, who used to identify themselves as “Young Turks” is known as Armenian Genocide.The common accepted date of the genocide is 24th April, 1915, the day 250 Armenian intellectuals and leaders were arrested by Ottoman authorities. These people were later executed. The reason: given for the genocide is that the “Young Turks” wanted to form an exclusive Turkish-Muslim state for which the extermination of Armenian Christian was carried out. 1915-1918 Armenian Genocide 1917 Russian Revolution The February RevolutionThe Russian Revolution of 1917 centers around two primary events: the February Revolution and the October Revolution. The February Revolution, which removed Tsar Nicholas II from power, developed spontaneously out of a series of increasingly violent demonstrations and riots on the streets of Petrograd (present-day St. Petersburg), during a time when the tsar was away from the capital visiting troops on the World War I front. However, most of those who took power after the February Revolution, in the provisional government (the temporary government that replaced the tsar) and in the Petrograd Soviet (an influential local council representing workers and soldiers in Petrograd), generally favored rule that was at least partially democratic. The October RevolutionThe October Revolution (also called the Bolshevik Revolution) overturned the interim provisional government and established the Soviet Union. The October Revolution was a much more deliberate event, orchestrated by a small group of people. The Bolsheviks, who led this coup, prepared their coup in only six months. They were generally viewed as an extremist group and had very little popular support when they began serious efforts in April 1917. By October, the Bolsheviks’ popular base was much larger; though still a minority within the country as a whole, they had built up a majority of support within Petrograd and other urban centers.After October, the Bolsheviks realized that they could not maintain power in an election-based system without sharing power with other parties and compromising their principles. As a result, they formally abandoned the democratic process in January 1918 and declared themselves the representatives of a dictatorship of the proletariat. In response, the Russian Civil War broke out in the summer of that year and would last well into 1920. 1917 Russian Revolution contunied... 1918-1921 Russian Civil War The Russian Civil War (7 November (25 October) 1917 – October 1922) was a multi-party war in the former Russian Empire fought between the Bolshevik Red Army and the White Army, the loosely allied anti-Bolshevik forces. Many foreign armies warred against the Red Army, notably the Allied Forces and the pro-German armies. The Red Army defeated the White Armed Forces of South Russia in Ukraine and the army led by Aleksandr Kolchak in Siberia in 1919. The remains of the White forces commanded by Pyotr Nikolayevich Wrangel were beaten in the Crimea and were evacuated in the autumn of 1920. A number of independent countries – Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, and Poland – emerged from the war. 1927-1937 Chinese Civil War 1933-1945 Holocaust The Holocaust began in 1933 when Adolf Hitler came to power in Germany and ended in 1945 when the Nazis were defeated by the Allied powers.The term "Holocaust," originally from the Greek word "holokauston" which means "sacrifice by fire," refers to the Nazi's persecution and planned slaughter of the Jewish people. The Hebrew word "Shoah," which means "devastation, ruin, or waste," is also used for this genocide. 1935-1936 Second Italo-Abyssinian War. 1922 The march on rome. 1936-1939 Spanish Civil War 1939-1945 World War II 1945-1990 Cold War 1946-1949 Chinese Civil War resumes 1946-1954 First Indochina War 1948 Israel War of Independence 1950-1953 Korean War 1954-1962 French-Algerian War Some Hetalia clips related to history 1955-1972 First Sudanese Civil War 1956 Suez Crisis 1959 Cuban Revolution 1959-1973 Vietnam War 1967 Six-Day War 1979-1989 Soviet-Afghan War 1980-1988 Iran-Iraq War 1990-1991 Persian Gulf War 1991-1995 Third Balkan War 1994 Rwandan Genocide Bibliography! On October 24 1922 Mussolini threatens to March to Rome and seize power.He politically blackmailed the government – either the let the fascists into government or he would let loose a revolution leading to a fascist government.Mussolini goes to Milan and starts his march towards Rome.On October 28 5 am the Prime Minister Facta after having checked for loyalty among the military he decides to meet Mussolini with force.This decision has to be signed by the King, and he refuses, Facta resigns as Prime Minister. Now the King has to appoint a new one.Mussolini is appointed Prime Minister on October 31 1922. BUT in a coalition government. The Second Italo–Ethiopian War, also referred to as the Second Italo–Abyssinian War, was a colonial war that started in October 1935 and ended in May 1936. The war was fought between the armed forces of the Kingdom of Italy (Regno d'Italia) and the armed forces of the Ethiopian Empire (also known as Abyssinia). The war resulted in the military occupation of Ethiopia and its annexation into the newly created colony of Italian East Africa (Africa Orientale Italiana, or AOI). The Spanish Civil War[nb 2] was fought from July 17, 1936 to April 1, 1939 between the Republicans, who were loyal to the established Spanish republic, and the Nationalists, a rebel group led by General Francisco Franco. The Nationalists prevailed and Franco would rule Spain for the next 36 years. The instability created in Europe by the First World War (1914-18) set the stage for another international conflict–World War II–which broke out two decades later and would prove even more devastating. Rising to power in an economically and politically unstable Germany, Adolf Hitler and his National Socialist (Nazi Party) rearmed the nation and signed strategic treaties with Italy and Japan to further his ambitions of world domination. Hitler's invasion of Poland in September 1939 drove Great Britain and France to declare war on Germany, and World War II had begun. Over the next six years, the conflict would take more lives and destroy more land and property around the globe than any previous war. Among the estimated 45-60 million people killed were 6 million Jews murdered in Nazi concentration camps as part of Hitler's diabolical "Final Solution," now known as the Holocaust. At the end of the war, the Soviet Union redrew its borders by extending its sovereignty westward along a line from the Black Sea to the Arctic. Some formerly independent nations, including the Baltic Republics of Latvia, Estonia and Lithuania, were absorbed into the Soviet state, while others, such as Poland and Hungary, lost territory but remained nominally independent. To prevent further expansion westwards, the Truman Doctrine was enunciated, which committed the United States to the defense of "free people everywhere." The Chinese Revolution refers to the military conflict (1946–1950) in the second part of Chinese Civil War. In some anti-revisionist communist media and historiography, as well as the official media of the Communist Party of China, this period is known as the War of Liberation The disputable name is The Second Chinese Civil War The First Indochina War (also known as the French Indochina War), was a major conflict in the Asian region known as Indochina, which is made up of the modern nations of Vietnam, Cambodia, and Laos. The war was fought by France, the long-time colonial ruler in the Indochina, and Vietnamese, Cambodian, and Laotian Communist rebel forces. The First Indochina War ended in French defeat following the surrender of a French army to the Viet Minh rebels in the Battle of Dien Bien Phu in 1954.France began its conquest of Indochina in 1859, and by 1885, controlled most of Vietnam, Cambodia, and Laos. Vietnamese resistance to French rule continued on and off in the decades between the French conquest and the start of World War Two. In 1940, Japan invaded Indochina and defeated the French. A Vietnamese resistance movement fought the Japanese occupation, and after Japan's defeat in 1945, the Vietnamese resisitance hoped to gain independence from the returning French. FRANCE VS. Vietnam The Arab-Israeli war of 1948 was the first in a series of conflicts between these people. It was a conflict between the native Arabs and Jews that lived in Palestine, the Jews wanting their own land. The war lasted from May 1948 to January 1949 and ended with a Jewish victory and the establishment of Israel. Called the War of Independence the Jews nationalized their land and turned large numbers of Palestine’s into refugees from the land of their birth. This all started in 1882 when the Zionist movement started with a group of non-religious European Jews to make a permanent home for the Jews in Palestine. For 1300 years all people in Palestine lived peacefully together; Jews, Muslims and Christians. But in World War I Britain occupied Palestine and gave a declaration of Balfour to the Zionist Federation that they would be establishing a national home for the Jews in Palestine. The Jews already believed the land belonged to them because of religious importance and they thought it was rightfully theirs. The only problem was native Arabs already occupied the land. By the 1930’s-40’s Britain opened the land to Jewish Immigration because of Nazism and the Holocaust. At this time Jews made up 33% of the population but only occupied 7% of the land. The United Nations (UN) voted to split Palestine between Arabs and Jews to make Jerusalem an international area. War broke out between the two in 1948, at that time Jews occupied 80% of Palestine and established Israel inside it. The Jews “ethnically cleansed” the area of Arabs and destroyed more than 400 villages, killed thousands, and captured 25,000 prisoners. Towards the end of 1948 the UN voted to make Israel allow Palestinians to return home, until today Israel has not done so. Jews thought of this as a rebirth of the land they had already “owned” instead of new land, May 14 1948 is Israel’s independence day. 1950: North Korean Communist forces invade South Korea (June 25). UN calls for cease-fire and asks UN members to assist South Korea (June 27). Truman orders U.S. forces into Korea (June 27). North Koreans capture Seoul (June 28). Gen. Douglas MacArthur designated commander of unified UN forces (July 8). Pusan Beachhead—UN forces counterattack and capture Seoul (Aug.–Sept.), capture Pyongyang, North Korean capital (Oct.). Chinese Communists enter war (Oct. 26), force UN retreat toward 38th parallel (Dec.).
1951: Gen. Matthew B. Ridgway replaces MacArthur after he threatens Chinese with massive retaliation (April 11). Armistice negotiations (July) continue with interruptions until June 1953.
1953: Armistice signed (July 27). Chinese troops withdraw from North Korea (Oct. 26, 1958), but over 200 violations of armistice noted to 1959. S. Korea N. korea The Algerian Revolution was a revolution against France by the Algerian independence movements from 1954 to 1962, which led to Algeria gaining its independence from France. An important decolonization war, it was a complex conflict characterized by guerrilla warfare, maquis fighting, terrorism against civilians, the use of torture on both sides, and counter-terrorism operations by the French Army. The conflict was also a civil war between loyalist Algerians who believed in a French Algeria and their insurrectionist Algerian Muslim counterparts. Effectively started by members of the National Liberation Front on November 1, 1954, during the Toussaint Rouge the conflict shook the foundations of the French Fourth Republic (1946–58) and led to its eventual collapse. The First Sudanese Civil War was a conflict from 1955 to 1972 between the northern part of Sudan and the southern Sudan region that demanded representation and more regional autonomy. Half a million people died over the 17 years of war, which may be divided into three stages: initial guerrilla war, Anyanya, and South Sudan Liberation Movement.However, the agreement that ended the First Sudanese Civil War's fighting in 1972 failed to completely dispel the tensions that had originally caused it, leading to a reigniting of the north-south conflict during the Second Sudanese Civil War, which lasted from 1983 to 2005. The period between 1955 and 2005 is thus sometimes considered to be a single conflict with an eleven-year ceasefire that separates two violent phases. In 1956, the Suez Canal became the focus of a major world conflict. The canal represents the only direct means of travel from the Mediterranean to the Indian Ocean, making it vital to the flow of trade between Asia, the Middle East, Europe, and the U.S. Normally, free passage was granted to all who used the canal, but Britain and France desired control of it, not only for commercial shipping, but also for colonial interests. The Egyptian government had just been taken over by Gamal Abdel Nasser, who felt the canal should be under Egyptian control. The United States and Britain had promised to give aid to Egypt in the construction of the Asw_n High Dam in the Nile. This aid was retracted however, and in retaliation Nasser nationalized the canal. He intended to use the funds raised from the operation of the canal to pay for the Dam.Angery British and French politicians joined forces with Israel, a long time enemy of Egypt, in an attack against Nasser. The Israeli army marched toward the canal on October 29, 1956. Britain and France reinforced the Israelis, and the joint effort defeated the Egyptian army quickly. Within ten days, British and French forces had completely occupied the Suez region. Egypt responded by sinking 40 ships in the canal, blocking all passage. The United Nations sought to resolve the conflict and pressured the two European powers to back down. The rest of the world shunned Britain and France for their actions in the crisis, and soon the UN salvage team moved in to clear the canal. Britain and France backed down, and control of the canal was given back to Egypt in March 1957. The Egyptian government was allowed to maintain control of the canal as long as they permitted all vessels of all nations free passage through it.The colonial tradition of Britain and France began to crumble after the Suez Crisis. The feeling of defeat by a former colony eventually led to the two nations giving up their African colonial empires. The long era of colonization was finally coming to a close. The conflicts between Israel and Egypt, however, were just beginning. Hostilities again flared on June 5, 1967, during the Six-Day War. The Yom Kippur War, the fourth of many armed conflicts between Israel, Egypt, and other Arab nations began on October 16 (Yom Kippur), 1973. Although the war lasted only two weeks, it marked the first time that oil played a major part in the outcome. From October 1973 to March 1974 Arab nations maintained an embargo on oil exports to Israel’s western allies. Israel and Egypt finally began resolving their differences in an UN peace treaty in 1979 1959: The Cuban Revolution Fidel Castro came to power promising democracy and freedom. Now, after 50 years of repression and hardship, he's finally fading from the scene. Is there a new revolution in store for Cuba? By Anthony Depalma It was the last day of 1958, and many of the richest and most powerful people in Havana had gathered at the Riviera Hotel to welcome in the new year. The orchestra blared Afro-Cuban music, and the champagne flowed freely. But the mood was somber.Far from the glamorous capital, a bearded 32-year-old lawyer-turned-revolutionary named Fidel Castro and a few hundred of his followers were gaining ground in a long guerrilla war against Cuba's corrupt dictator, Fulgencio Batista. In fact, much of Cuba was boiling with rebellion.Just before midnight, an American businessman at the Riviera said that on his way to the party he had seen a long line of cars heading toward the airstrip at Batista's army headquarters in Havana. Two guests at his table happened to be reporters for The New York Times, who immediately realized that Batista was preparing to flee, along with his family and key supporters. By the time they got to a telephone (cell phones were decades from being invented), several DC-4's were taking off for the Dominican Republic, where Batista and his entourage went into exile.Castro and his rebels marched into Havana a few days later and were welcomed as conquering heroes by cheering crowds. Of course, those lining the streets had no way of knowing then that Castro and his revolution would soon rob Cubans of the most basic human rights and political freedoms, sink the Cuban economy, and rupture relations with Cuba's neighbor to the north, the United States. The Vietnam War was the prolonged struggle between nationalist forces attempting to unify the country of Vietnam under a communist government and the United States (with the aid of the South Vietnamese) attempting to prevent the spread of communism. Engaged in a war that many viewed as having no way to win, U.S. leaders lost the American public's support for the war. Since the end of the war, the Vietnam War has become a benchmark for what not to do in all future U.S. foreign conflicts. Israel consistently expressed a desire to negotiate with its neighbors. In an address to the UN General Assembly on October 10, 1960, Foreign Minister Golda Meir challenged Arab leaders to meet with Prime Minister David Ben-Gurion to negotiate a peace settlement. Nasser answered on October 15, saying that Israel was trying to deceive world opinion, and reiterating that his country would never recognize the Jewish State.The Arabs were equally adamant in their refusal to negotiate a separate settlement for the refugees. As Nasser told the United Arab Republic National Assembly March 26, 1964:Israel and the imperialism around us, which confront us, are two separate things. There have been attempts to separate them, in order to break up the problems and present them in an imaginary light as if the problem of Israel is the problem of the refugees, by the solution of which the problem of Palestine will also be solved and no residue of the problem will remain. The danger of Israel lies in the very existence of Israel as it is in the present and in what she represents. The Soviet war in Afghanistan lasted nine years from December 1979 to February 1989. Part of the Cold War, it was fought between Soviet-led Afghan forces against multi-national insurgent groups called the mujahideens. The insurgents received military training in neighboring Pakistan, China, and billions of dollars from the United States, Saudi Arabia, and other countries The decade long war resulted in millions of Afghans fleeing their country, mostly to Pakistan and Iran. Hundreds of thousands of Afghan civilians were killed in addition to the participants in the war.The initial Soviet deployment of the 40th Army in Afghanistan began on December 24, 1979 under Soviet leader Leonid Brezhnev. The final troop withdrawal started on May 15, 1988, and ended on February 15, 1989 under the last Soviet leader, Mikhail Gorbachev. Due to the interminable nature of the war, the conflict in Afghanistan has sometimes been referred to as the "Soviet Union's Vietnam War" or "the Bear Trap". Iran-Iraq War, 1980–88, protracted military conflict between Iran and Iraq. It officially began on Sept. 22, 1980, with an Iraqi land and air invasion of western Iran, although Iraqi spokespersons maintained that Iran had been engaging in artillery attacks on Iraqi towns since Sept. 4. Iraqi president Saddam Hussein claimed as the reason for his attack on Iran a territorial dispute over the Shatt al Arab, a waterway that empties into the Persian Gulf and forms the boundary between Iran and Iraq. In 1975, a militarily weaker Iraq had by treaty signed over to Iran partial control of the waterway, but after the fall (1979) of Muhammad Reza Shah Pahlevi and the resultant weakening of Iran's military, Iraq seized the opportunity to reclaim the Shatt al Arab. Iraq also hoped to seize the western Iranian region of Khuzestan, an area known for its extensive oil fields. The Iraqi offensive was initially successful, capturing the port city of Khorramshahr by the end of 1980. Iranian resistance proved strong, however, and Iraqi troops had withdrawn from the occupied portions of Iran by early 1982. Nevertheless, Iranian leader Ruhollah Khomeini declared that Iran would not cease fighting until Saddam's regime was toppled. Iran began a series of offensives, which proved successful enough to cause Iraq to resort to the use of chemical weapons (see poison gas), a tactic reviled by the international community. Iranian troops captured the oil-rich Majnoon Islands from Iraq in Feb., 1984, and southern Iraq's Fao peninsula in early 1986. Sporadic air and missile attacks on cities and military installations were common throughout the war, and in 1985 both sides began to strike their opponent's capital. The United States and several Western European nations became involved in the war in 1987, in response to Iranian attacks on Kuwaiti oil tankers traveling in the Persian Gulf. These attacks sullied Iran's international reputation considerably, making it difficult for Khomeini to obtain arms. Finally, in July, 1988, Iran was forced to accept a United Nations–mandated cease-fire. Estimates of the number of dead range up to 1.5 million. In its war effort, Iran was supported by Syria and Libya, and received much of its weaponry from North Korea and China, as well as from covert arms transactions from the United States. Iraq enjoyed much wider support, both among Arab and Western nations: the Soviet Union was its largest supplier of arms. In 1990 Iraq, concerned with securing its forcible annexation of Kuwait (see Persian Gulf War), agreed to accept the terms of the 1975 treaty with Iran and withdraw its troops from Iranian territory as well as exchange all prisoners of war. An agreement was not signed, however, and both sides held thousands of POWs for many years. Several prisoner exchanges and releases occurred after 1988; the final exchange took place in 2003.
The first major conflict involving the United States since Vietnam proved to be a catharsis of sorts for the American military and public. Just as the Spanish-American War of 1898 gave the nation a "short victorious war" following the angst of the Civil War, the Gulf War lifted the U.S. out of a self-conscious, post-Vietnam malaise. However, just as the short war of 1898 quickly led to the bloody Philippine-American War, the Gulf War's dark legacy soon reared it's ugly head; the Gulf War Syndrome plagues veterans and the No-Fly Zone War, kept alive the violence and confrontation as a lead-in to the current Third Persian Gulf War, also known in the U.S. as the Iraq War.There are nearly as many links dealing with Gulf War Syndrome as there are on the war itself. This is not really a surprise, considering the relative brevity of the war compared to the serious long-term consequences of the disease from which many veterans suffer. Yugoslavia (literally, Land of the South Slavs), was a nation born out of the ashes of World War One, created through the merger of the mostly Catholic regions of Slovenia and Croatia with the Eastern Orthodox Kingdoms of Serbia and Montenegro. Included in the new nation was the land of Bosnia, ethnically and religiously divided among Catholic Croats, Orthodox Serbs and Muslim Slavs. In southern Yugoslavia lay the region of Kosovo, a fairly new addition to Serbia, containing a largely Muslim population which spoke Albanian. Until World War 2, this land of many nationalities held together fairly well. Then, with the Axis invasion of 1941 and the subsequently brutal occupation by the Germans and Italians, the old ethnic divisions surfaced into a very bitter civil war. This conflict primarily pitted the Croats, who allied themselves with the Axis, against Serbs. Following the war, the Communist dictator, Josip Broz Tito, reunited Yugoslavia with a firm hand, imprisoning nationalists from all sides. Following his death 1980, the system he held together slowly began to unravel.By 1991, the Serbian politician Slobodan Milosovic gained power in Yugoslavia through inciting Serb nationalism. Along with growing nationalistic feelings in the other parts of Yugoslavia, the day came when Slovenia and Croatia declared independence from what they saw as a nation dominated by Serbs. The Yugoslav Army attempted to prevent the breakaway republics from leaving, but soon failed. Serbs living in southern and western Croatia then attempted to break away and form a new nation called Krajina. In 1992, Bosnia also broke away from Yugoslavia, precipitating yet another war. In southern Yugoslavia, the region called Macedonia broke away peacefully to form an independent nation.Below is a listing, with some detail, of what can be called "The Third Balkan War." Yugoslavia is a part of the Balkan Peninsula in southeastern Europe. The first two Balkan Wars were short conflicts at the start of the Twentieth Century. As this war can be divided into wars within wars within yet more wars, each separate conflict is indented, showing which larger war it is a part of. As the former Yugoslavia continues to subdivide itself with each new conflict, more wars are added. The latest conflicts are the Kosovo War of 1998-1999, the Presevo Rebellion of 2000-Present, and the new Albanian Uprising in Macedonia, which began in March of 2001. Beginning on April 6, 1994, Hutus began slaughtering the Tutsis in the African country of Rwanda. As the brutal killings continued, the world stood idly by and just watched the slaughter. Lasting 100 days, the Rwanda genocide left approximately 800,000 Tutsis and Hutu sympathizers dead. http://themmindset.wordpress.com/2011/03/26/armenian-genocide-1915-1918/http://www.sparknotes.com/history/european/russianrev/summary.html