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01 Arts & Crafts and Art Nouveau

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Kirk Demarais

on 11 October 2016

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Transcript of 01 Arts & Crafts and Art Nouveau

The History of
Advertising & Design

TIMELINE OF
GRAPIC DESIGN
CORE ELEMENTS
Printing press with
movable type
mass production
technology

First
photograph

Pictorial
newspapers


Efficient color
printing
TIMELINE OF
DESIGN
MOVEMENTS

1850
1860
1870
1880
1890
1900
1910
1920
1930
1940
1950
1960
1970
1980
1990
2000
2010
2020
1840
Industrial revolution
complete (1760-1840)

Arts and Crafts
Art Nouveau
Art Deco
Cubism
Futurism
Constructivism
De Stijl
Mid-Century Modern
Purism
Bauhaus
Postmodern
International (Swiss) Style
WWII (1939-1945)
WWI (1914-1918)
Television
broadcasting
begins 1948

Sputnik 1
launched 1957

Widespread use
of the Internet
Moon walk 1969
Great Depression
(1930- early 1940s)

Ford's Model T-
cars became
popular and
affordable 1908
Vietnam War ends (1955-75)
MTV launch
1981

Motion picture
industry forms

Rise of
commercial
radio broadcast

Rise of
home video
Rise of
video games

1455
1826
1880s
Halftone screen
process

quick photographic
reproduction
1830s
1861
First color
photography
wood-engraved
illustration
1851
Type
Photography
Illustrations
Color
=
Mass Produced
Graphic
Design

First advertising
agency 1869
N.W. Ayer & Sons

Doug Leen and
Brian Maebius
http://www.rangerdoug.com/posters
Original WPA posters 1930s-40s (Work Projects Administration)
New posters, vintage style
Custom signage
GAVRON
Jan Schmuckal
MODERN
APPLICATIONS
Address label
Reproduction Mission style furniture

Yoshiko Yamamoto
Ian Leino
ARTS AND
CRAFTS
ARTS AND CRAFTS YEARS:

1850-1900
MAJOR EVENTS

U.S. Civil War

Pasteurization of milk

Slavery abolished
The telephone
The phonograph
The light bulb
The automobile
INVENTIONS
Kodak box camera
THE ARTS AND CRAFTS MOVEMENT
WAS A RESPONSE TO:
The Industrial Revolution
(1760-1840)

‣ Sacrifice – dedication of man's craft to God, as visible proofs of man's love and obedience


youtube.com/watch?v=t55YppaiKAM
Excess of Victorian culture
THE ARTS AND CRAFTS MOVEMENT
WAS A RESPONSE TO:


Victorian Architecture
Ornate facades
Gabled roofs
Rejects the colonial symmetry
Multiple stories
A turret with a spire

PLACE OF ORIGIN
ENGLAND
FRANK LLOYD WRIGHT
PRAIRIE SCHOOL STYLE
youtube.com/watch?v=XTTi8rNXtWo
“The term “crafts” in the early twentieth century denotes the
decorative arts
... such as furniture and textile design, metalwork, bookbinding, graphic design, and even the creation of industrial products; and should not be confused with uniquely American notion of “crafts” as amateurish art projects with ephemeral materials.”
author Stephen F. Eskilson

The Seven Lamps of Architecture
VISUAL CHARACTERISTICS
KEY INDIVIDUALS
WILLIAM MORRIS
“If you cannot learn to love real art
at least learn to hate sham art.”
JOHN RUSKIN
“All great art is the work of the whole living creature, body and soul, and chiefly of the soul.”
English textile designer, typographer
artist, writer, poet and socialist

Founded the design firm, Morris, Marshall, Faulkner & Co.
Leading English art critic, social thinker, drafter, watercolorist
A return to
tradition, craftsmanship, and beauty
thus giving status to decorative arts.
Hanging by C. F. A. Voysey
Season ticket for The Arts & Crafts
Exhibition Society
by Walter Crane, England, UK, 1890
Music by:
Ralph Vaughan Williams
and
Gustav Holst
Transform society
Improve lives
Bring social unity
UTOPIA
HIS GOALS
“...I do not want art for a few; any more than education for a few; or freedom for a few... ”
-William Morris
Wallpaper
Inspired by nature
(frequent use of earth tones,
repetition, natural images)
Inspired by nature
Beauty in line and shape

Inspired by nature
Beauty in line and shape
Simplicity (careful use of ornament)

Inspired by nature
Beauty in line and shape
Simplicity (careful use of ornament)
Natural materials

Inspired by nature
Beauty in line and shape
Simplicity (careful use of ornament)
Natural materials
Harmonious

Inspired by nature
Beauty in line and shape
Simplicity (careful use of ornament)
Natural materials
Harmonious
Utilitarian, focused on the
decorative arts

Textiles
Furniture
Sussex Chair
The Morris Chair
Morris was unable to balance
purity of art with business.
Sire Degrevaunt
embroidered cover
KELMSCOTT PRESS
Beowulf



‣ Truth – handcrafted and honest display of materials and structure. Truth to materials and honest display of construction



‣ Power – buildings should be thought of in terms of their massing and reach towards the sublimity of nature



‣ Beauty – aspiration towards God expressed in ornamentation drawn from nature, His creation



‣ Obedience – no originality for its own sake



‣ Life – buildings should be made by human hands, so that the joy of masons and stone carvers is associated with the expressive freedom given them


‣ Memory – buildings should respect the culture from which they have developed

Using the finest materials meant that few could afford his products.

Fine arts
Decorative arts
GUSTAV STICKLEY
“The root of all reform lies in the individual and that the life of the individual is shaped mainly by home surroundings.”
-Gustav Stickley
Owner of United Craft furniture, Publisher of The Craftsman
ELBERT HUBBARD
“A genius is a man who takes the lemons that Fate hands him and starts a lemonade stand with them.”
-Elbert Hubbard
Writer, publisher, artist, and philosopher
Founded the Roycroft society
“Every man should have a college education in order to show him how little the thing is really worth. The intellectual kings of the earth have seldom been college-bred.”
-Elbert Hubbard
ROYCROFT SOCIETY
http://www.flickr.com/groups/hewn/
OTHER VISUAL RESOURCES
A collection of like-minded individuals who espoused William Morris’s ideals through furniture, metalwork, leather, and bookbinding.
http://www.arts-crafts.com/books/roycroft-mottoes/
THE MOTTO BOOK
BY THE ROYCROFTERS
www.youtube.com/watch?v=csXOFTzh5xQ
ARTHUR MACKMURDO
CHARLES VOYSEY
ARTS & CRAFTS IN
NORTH AMERICA
OWEN JONES
American Civil War
1861-1865

The printing telegraph
www.youtube.com/watch?v=6LTvnwisD2Q
youtube.com/watch?v=CBq73yxha0o
MISSION STYLE
Inspired by William Morris' philosophy
Called "Mission" because it's patterned after furniture built for Spanish missions in the western US
Vermis by Melene Hartmann Rasmussen
MAY MORRIS
CANDACE WHEELER
"The mother of American
interior design"
CHARLES LIMBERT
LOUIS COMFORT TIFFANY
One of America's first woman interior and textile designers
Horizontal lines
Flat roofs with broad overhanging eaves
Windows grouped in horizontal bands
Integration with the landscape
Disciplined use of ornament
http://www.artsandcraftstile.com/
ARTS & CRAFTS (CRAFTSMAN) STYLE BUNGALOW HOUSES
ART
NOUVEAU
VISUAL CHARACTERISTICS
Music :
Claude Debussy La Mer
and
Jacques Offenbach
Orpheus in the Underworld
Organic, curvilinear lines inspired by nature
FRENCH NOUVEAU
MORE MODERN
APPLICATIONS
“To name an object is to suppress three-quarters of the enjoyment of the poem... to suggest it,
that is the dream.”
-Stephane Mallarme


Art Nouveau is a Total art style.
Japanese Ukiyo-e
woodblock print
French Rococo style
JULES CHÉRET [Shur-EE]
"The father of the modern poster"
Painter and lithographer living in France
Advanced the recognition of
Chromolithography

Maîtres de l'Affiche (Masters of the poster)
series of lithographs
LEONETTO CAPPIELLO [CAP-YELLO]
"The father of modern advertising"
Italian caricaturist and poster art designer who lived in Paris
Cappiello caricatures
Giacomo Puccini
Sarah Bernhardt
ALPHONSE MUCHA [MOO-KUH]
"The father of Art Nouveau"
Czech painter and decorative artist, known for his distinct style who lived
in France.
Elongated female figures
Flowing clothing
Flat repetitive patterns (arabesques)
Curvilinear lines
Floral decorations
VISUAL CHARACTERISTICS
Organic, curvilinear lines inspired by nature
Flowers, plants and flying creatures are common motifs
VISUAL CHARACTERISTICS
Organic, curvilinear lines inspired by nature
Flowers, plants and flying creatures are common motifs
Women and sensuality
VISUAL CHARACTERISTICS
Organic, curvilinear lines inspired by nature
Flowers, plants and flying creatures are common motifs
Women and sensuality
Used in advertising
(most commonly associated
with the movement)
Shepherd Fairey
Théophile Steinlen
SYMBOLIST MOVEMENT
Art for art's sake Beauty for beauty's sake
Favors the dreamlike over realism
Objects have symbolic meaning
TYPOGRAPHY
HENRI de TOULOUSE-LAUTREC
JULES CHÉRET
JULES CHÉRET
ART NOUVEAU
ELSEWHERE
Aesthetic values over social-political themes
AESTHETIC MOVEMENT
EDWARD PENFIELD
Eugene Grasset
American artist
Editor and poster designer
at Harper & Brothers

AUBREY BEARDSLEY
English illustrator
and designer

THE FOUR
Margaret MacDonald
Charles Rennie Mackintosh
Frances MacDonald
Herbert MacNair
Four artists who defined the
Glasgow Style (Scottish Nouveau)
Frances MacDonald
-De Stijl
years: 1917-1928
general info: Means “the style” generic name is purposeful. Started in the Netherlands. An effort to attempt to shed nationalist egotism (which was responsible for the war and achieve universal harmony. opposed to individualism, in favor of universalism. impersonal with an admiration for the modern machine world. “abstraction could not be identified with any one country or individual so it was most suitable for universal style in the post war era.”
attempt to build a new rationality.
We’re not opposed to society.
A response to: The trauma of the first World War
visual characteristics: Geometric lines, sparce, vast negative space. Machine Aesthetic.
limited expressive elements, utopian theme
key individuals:Theo Van Doesburg (1883-1931)Piet Mondrian (1872-1944)
Bart van der Leck (1876-1958) Gerrit Rietveld (1888-1964)

Typography: Alphabet by Theo van Doesburg
modern application: white stripes cover and all those mondrian examples
other notes: disagreement about diagonal lines
did not translate well into commercial graphic design i.e. Bart van der leck salad oil poster

DE STIJL
CONSTRUCTIVISM
Arts & Crafts and
Art Nouveau

1980s Pop
Fantasia poster (1971 re-release)
Total art style-
a movement that embraces graphic art, architecture, interior design, and decorative arts including jewelry, furniture, textiles, tableware, as well as the fine arts.

Ad by Milton Glaser
vimeo.com/36293215
The Lumineers
INTERIOR DESIGN
MAKER CULTURE
Artisan Coffee
Craft Beer
AMERICAN CRAFTSMAN STYLE
1814
First steam-powered printing press
Clothing store poster ad
Uxbridge Fair poster, 1878
Depiction of Victorian era street
Bottle label
vs.
paintings
drawings
photography
sculpture
furniture
dishes
textiles
wallpaper
Function:
To be seen
Function:
To be seen and used
Why is it called Arts and Crafts?
The Decemberists
The return of
the Total Artist.
The designer and the craftsman are the same person.
Victorian Era
Criticism
Lack of craftsmanship
and artistic merit
No new styles or ideas
Too much ornamentation
Arts and Crafts
is a "Total" art style.
Joseph McHugh’s Morris chair
(1819-1900)
(1834-1896)
(1858-1942)
dormer windows and multiple roof planes
generously overhanging eves
exposed rafters and beams
wood shingles, stone work
generous porches
tapered porch columns supported by low pedestals made of stone, brick, wood or stucco
Advertising poster for Job cigarette papers (1896)
Montmartre

Head of a Girl- statue for the stand of the Hubigant Perfumery at the Paris Exhibition (1900)
Bust of a Woman
French painter, printmaker and illustrator
(1964-1901)
La Toilette, 1889
MODERN APPLICATION
MODERN APPLICATION
"I have tried to do what
is true and not ideal."
(1872-1898)
(1866-1925)
"A poster should tell its story at once – a design that needs study is not a poster, no matter how well it is executed."
1960s gig posters
Chong Lock Sin
"Of course, I have one aim, the grotesque. If I am not grotesque I am nothing."
ART NOUVEAU YEARS:

1890-1920
The term Art Nouveau means

NEW ART
PLACE OF ORIGIN
EUROPE
THE ART NOUVEAU MOVEMENT
WAS A RESPONSE TO:
The Industrial Revolution
ARTS & CRAFTS ART NOUVEAU
Reaction to the
Industrial Revolution
Reaction to the
Industrial Revolution
Beauty in
everyday design
for all people
Socialist
Ideals

Libertarian
Views
Embraces
styles of the past
Creates
new styles
Liberty is the highest political end.
Individuals control their own actions.
Embrace the
old country
Celebrate
urban life
Inspired by
Ruskin's
Philosophies
Embraces (beautiful)
mass production
Rejects
mass

production
Borrows
Symbolist
thinking
Beauty in
everyday design
for all people
Inspired by
nature
Inspired by
nature
Traditional
and spiritual
Progressive
and carnal
CAYLIE FOLEY
JORDAN KLINE
JON SKINNER
JBU STUDENT WORK
ANDREA CROUSE
JESSICA FOLEY
JBU STUDENT WORK
ALEC SOARD
OWEN JONES
Anthropology
Catalog
William Morris
Charles Robert Ashby
Anthropology
Catalog
[mo-mar-tah]
http://dai.ly/x1irbau
Start: 7min 18sec
End: 12min 17sec
http://dai.ly/x1irbau
Start: 44min 42sec
End: 50min 40sec
Video: The Four
Video: Aubrey Beardsley
Video: Mucha
http://dai.ly/x1ir9t4
Start: 10min 11sec
End: 15min 59sec
Video: Introduction
Start: 0min
End: 3min 23sec
http://dai.ly/x1ir9t4
Video: Architecture of Hector Guimard
Start: 45min 30sec
End: 52min 02sec
http://dai.ly/x1ir9t4
Japanese Ukiyo-e woodblock prints
Means "pictures from the floating world."
Depicted scenes and personalities from the Yoshiwara district.
At the Moulin Rouge, 1895
Alphonse Mucha
Edward Penfield

ASSOCIATED STYLES
1901
1893
1895
Leslie Knope's house
Parks and Rec, Season 2
HIS GOALS
http://stickleymuseum.com/index.cfm
STICKLEY MUSEUM SITE
Total art style-
a movement that embraces graphic art, architecture, interior design, and decorative arts (jewelry, furniture, textiles, tableware).
Édouard Dujardin
Jane Avril
James Abbott McNeill Whistler, Nocturne in Black and Gold: The Falling Rocket (1874)
Gustave Moreau, Galatea, 1896
Metaphoric, suggestive
MUCHA'S TRAITS
Ad for Mucha's art prints
Ad for Printer-Editor
Zac Neulieb
Kirk Demarais
Meaning behind the styles clashed with contemporary living.
HIS GOALS
ARTS & CRAFTS ART NOUVEAU
Full transcript