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Major Events of the Late 20th Century by Alex and Brendi
Transcript of Major Events of the Late 20th Century by Alex and Brendi
Major Events of the Late 20th Century
Overview of the Late 1900's
During the late 1900's many major events began to happen for America; from The Watergate Scandal to the Persian Gulf War, the United States began to experience events that have changed history and helped shaped society for what it is today.
The major presidents of this time include: LBJ, JFK, Nixon, Reagan, and Ford.
The Counterculture Hippie Movement
The counterculture youth rejected the ideas, beliefs or cultural norms of older generations, and went against the social norm. The generation gap refers to the differences between the younger generation and the older generation.
Turn on, tune in, drop out: turn on to drugs, tune in to what mattered in life, and drop out of mainstream society and conformity.
Hippies also were a new type of people, they did what was "hip" during the sixties and some lived together in communes, such as the Haight-Ashbury in San Fransisco.
Many hippies were against Vietnam, and thought of it like they were fighting a war which was created by their parents.
This movement came to an end after catastrophic events at festivals such as stabbings and shootings.
The Environmental Movement
Rachel Carson was a woman who wrote Silent Spring, a book which detailed how chemical fertilizer and pesticides were damaging the ecosystem.
The First Earth Day was in 1960 and brought awareness to some of the problems on Earth.
The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) was created to protect clean water and air.
The Clean Air regulates air emissions from stationary and mobile sources, and the Clean Water Act established a national commitment to restore and maintain the nation's waters.
The Endangered Species Act authorizes land acquisition to conserve “selected species of native fish and wildlife.”
Meltdown at Three Mile Island: A nuclear power plant in Pennsylvania had a cooling malfunction which caused a reactor to partially melt. There were no injuries or deaths,
The Jimmy Carter Presidency
Jimmy Carter served as the 39th President of the United States. He served one term, from 1977 to 1981.
During his campaign, Carter promised that he would use his position as President to reaffirm the United States as a nation of freedom and justice. Many people were in favor of this, which helped him become elected as President.
In 1979, he signed the SALT II treaty, which limited production of nuclear weapons between the USA and USSR. However, Carter quickly withdrew the SALT II treaty after the Soviet Union invaded the neighboring country of Afghanistan. As a result, he decided to impose sanctions on the Soviets.
Reagan Challenges Communism
Ronald Reagan believed that the United States needed to weaken communism by challenging it as much as possible, but without provoking war. Reagan dedicated billions of dollars to the development and production of many nuclear weapons.
Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI): a proposed program in which land and space-based lasers would destroy any missiles aimed at the United States before they could reach their targets.
Iran-Contra Affair: political scandal under President Reagan involving the use of money from secret arms sales to Iran to illegally support the Contras in Nicaragua.
Persian Gulf War
Causes: Saddam Hussein (Iraq's dictator) invaded Kuwait and wanted to take over its rich oil deposits. If Hussein took control of the oil deposits, he would control nearly 20 percent of the oil produced around the world. The U.S. feared how much influence controlling a large amount of oil would give Hussein.
President Bush worked to build an international coalition and backed a UN resolution demanding that Iraqi troops withdraw from Kuwait.
Operation Desert Storm: A 1991 American-led attack on Iraqi forces after Iraq refused to withdraw its troops from Kuwait.
After losing an estimated 25,000 soldiers, Iraq agreed to a UN cease-fire. Bush chose to limit American actions to enforcing the UN resolution.
Iran Hostage Crisis: During Carter's presidency, the U.S. allowed the Shah of Iran to enter the country to seek medical attention. However, enraged Iran students took 66 American hostages as a result. Carter failed to win all of the hostages' release during the last year of his presidency.
Camp David Accords: Carter invited the leaders of Israel and Egypt to the Presidential retreat, Camp David, to negotiate a peace treaty. The negotiations produced what is known as the Camp David Accords. These agreements provided the framework for a peace treaty in which Egypt finally recognized the nation of Israel. As part of the agreement, Israel also withdrew its troops from the Sinai Peninsula.
Prentice Hall United States History
Mikhail Gorbachev became president of the Soviet Union in 1985. He proposed many reforms to help aid the Soviet Union's economy. Gorbachev realized that the Soviet Union could not match the new and improved military by the Reagan administration. The two leaders met several times during Reagan's presidency and the relations between the two improved drastically. They signed a nuclear arms pact and began negotiations on the START I treaty.
The USSR tearing down the Berlin Wall symbolized the end of communism in Europe.